The thermal decomposition studies on nitrophenates of copper, nickel and cobalt have been undertaken,α-t curves show dehydration of these compounds at lower temperatures whereas dehydration cum decomposition seem to occur at higher temperatures leading to oxidative combustion of aromatic part. NO2 gas is evolved during decomposition which seems to be responsible for oxidative reactions leading to detonation. The explosion temperature and velocity of detonation have been found to be linearly related with the number of nitro groups. The mechanism of thermal explosion has also been discussed.
Authors:Haiying Liu, Xinming Qian, Zhiming Du, Ping Huang, and Zhenyi Liu
heat release (namely thermalexplosion) of propellants is one of the main accident causes [ 6 – 8 ]. There were a lot of theory researches about thermalexplosion, but no thermalexplosion model including fireworks and crackers actual structure was
Authors:H. Gao, F. Zhao, R. Hu, H. Zhao, and H. Zhang
A method for estimating the critical temperatures (Tb) of thermal explosion for energetic materials is derived from Semenov’s thermal explosion theory and the non-isothermal kinetic
equation dα/dt=A0TBf(α)e−E/RT using reasonable hypotheses. The final formula of calculating the value of Tb is
(Tb−Te0=1. The data needed for the method, E and Te0, can be obtained from analyses of the non-isothermal DSC curves. When B=0.5 the critical temperature (Tb) of thermal explosion of azido-acetic-acid-2-(2-azido-acetoxy)-ethylester (EGBAA) is determined as 475.65 K.
Authors:Kun-Yue Chen, Wei-Ting Chen, Chen-Wei Chiu, Tsung-Chih Wu, and Chi-Min Shu
its thermokinetic parameters measured by vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). The results could be applied to simulate runaway reaction and thermalexplosion of vessels containing 20 mass% MEKPO subjected to external fire scenarios. The simulation technique
Authors:I. Eto, M. Akiyoshi, T. Matsunaga, A. Miyake, and T. Ogawa
Hydrogen peroxide containing
impurities has caused a lot of explosion accidents. In this study, a simple
device that using a glass vessel was made, cupric chloride was added into
hydrogen peroxide, and properties of runaway reaction of hydrogen peroxide
were evaluated. As a result, when copper ion exists over 0.04%, 50 g of 30%-hydrogen
peroxide has caused runaway reaction. Besides, it has been confirmed that
the shape of the reactor and initial temperature influence runaway reaction.
Authors:Chun-Ping Lin, Jo-Ming Tseng, Yi-Ming Chang, Shang-Hao Liu, Yen-Chun Cheng, and Chi-Min Shu
This study investigated the role played by green thermal analysis technology in promoting the use of resources, preventing
pollution, reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. The chemical tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB) has been widely employed in the petrifaction industries as an initiator of polymerization formation
agent. This study established the thermokinetic parameters and thermal explosion hazard for a reactor containing TBPB via
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To simulate thermokinetic parameters, a 5-ton barrel reactor of liquid thermal explosion
model was created in this study. The approach was to develop a precise and effective procedure on thermal decomposition, runaway,
and thermal hazard properties, such as activation energy (Ea), control temperature (CT), critical temperature (TCR), emergency temperature (ET), heat of decomposition (∆Hd), self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT), time to conversion limit (TCL), total energy release (TER), time to maximum rate under isothermal condition (TMRiso), etc. for a reactor containing TBPB. Experimental results established the features of thermal decomposition and huge size
explosion hazard of TBPB that could be executed as a reduction of energy potential and storage conditions in view of loss
To study the thermal explosion of liquids a low pressure autoclave has been built. The first stage of a thermal explosion, the thermal runaway, has been studied. Evaluation of the temperature-time history results in kinetic data. Comparison with other thermal methods shows that the reliability of the method is better than with DTA.
Authors:Mei-Li You, Ming-Yang Liu, Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi, and Chi-Min Shu
Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is a typical organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions. Differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to determine the fundamental thermokinetic parameters that involved exothermic onset
temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and other safety parameters for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. Frequency factor (A) and activation
energy (Ea) were calculated by Kissinger model, Ozawa equation, and thermal safety software (TSS) series via DSC experimental data.
Liquid thermal explosion (LTE) by TSS was employed to simulate the thermal explosion development for various types of storage
tank. In view of loss prevention, calorimetric application and model analysis to integrate thermal hazard development were
necessary and useful for inherently safer design.
Authors:T. Wang, Y. Lu, M. Zhu, J. Zhang, and S. Ji
The critical furnace chamber temperature (T′ign) of the thermal explosion synthesis reaction Ti+3Al→TiAl3 is studied by isothermal and non-isothermal DSC. The reaction product is characterized by using the X-ray powder diffraction.
The value of T′ign is between 740 and 745C obtained from the isothermal DSC observations, and 729C obtained from non-isothermal DSC curves.
It shows that these two values have a good consistency. With the help of the apparent activation energy of the reaction obtained
by Friedman method and the value of T′ign0 by the multiple linear regression of the T′igns at different heating rates (β), the critical temperature (Tb) of thermal explosion for Ti–75at%Al mixture is estimated to be 785C.
Authors:Sun-Ju Shen, Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi, Yih-Wen Wang, and Chi-Min Shu
Dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is usually employed as an initiator for polymerization, a source of free radicals, a hardener, and
a linking agent. In Asia, due to its unstable reactive nature, DCPO has caused many thermal explosions and runaway reaction
incidents in the manufacturing process. This study was conducted to elucidate its essentially thermal hazard characteristics.
In order to analyze the runaway behavior of DCPO in a batch reactor, thermokinetic parameters, such as heat of decomposition
(ΔHd) and exothermic onset temperature (T0), were measured via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal runaway phenomena were then thoroughly investigated
by DSC. The thermokinetics of DCPO mixed with acids or bases were determined by DSC, and the experimental data were compared
with kinetics-based curve fitting of thermal safety software (TSS). Solid thermal explosion (STE) and liquid thermal explosion
(LTE) simulations of TSS were applied to determine the fundamental thermal explosion behavior in large tanks or drums. Results
from curve fitting indicated that all of the acids or bases could induce exothermic reactions at even an earlier stage of
the experiments. In order to diminish the extent of hazard, hazard information must be provided to the manufacturing process.
Thermal hazard of DCPO mixed with nitric acid (HNO3) was more dangerous than with other acids including sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), and hydrochloric acid (HCl). By DSC, T0, heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and activation energy (Ea) of DCPO mixed with HNO3 were calculated to be 70 °C, 911 J g−1, and 33 kJ mol−1, respectively.