Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) can measure thermal image with a nano-scale spatial resolution. However, there remains
an issue in quantitative temperature measurement. We proposed an active temperature measurement method that provides a real
temperature image by compensating a variation in contact thermal conductance. Performance of the active method was examined
by a multi-function cantilever made with micro-fabrication process. Response test of the cantilever showed about 50 Hz cut
off frequency for both passive and active method. Temperature measurement test indicated that sensitivity of heat flow detection
was not enough to measure real temperature regardless of the thermal contact conductance. Imaging test demonstrated that the
active method takes temperature image closer to real temperature distribution than the passive method.
Modern thermal analysis, microcalorimetry and new emerging combined techniques which deliver calorimetric, microscopic and
spectroscopic data offer a powerful analytical battery for the study of pharmaceuticals. These techniques are very useful
in all steps of development of new drug products as well as methods for quality control in production. The characterization
of raw materials enables to understand the relationships between polymorphs, solvates and hydrates and to choose the proper
development of new drug products with very small amount of material in a very short time. Information on stability, purity
is valuable for new entities as well as for marketed drug substances from different suppliers. Excipients which vary from
single organic or inorganic entity to complexes matrixes or polymers need to be characterized and properly controlled. The
thermodynamic phase-diagrams are the basis of the studies of drug-excipients interactions. They are very useful for the development
of new delivery systems. A great number of new formulations need proper knowledge of the behaviour of the glass transition
temperature of the components. Semi-liquid systems, interactions in aqueous media are also successfully studied by these techniques.
Authors:J. Canotilho, R. Castro, M. Rosado, S. Nunes, M. Cruz, and J. Redinha
The growth of atenolol, pindolol and betaxolol hydrochloride from melt was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and polarized light thermal microscopy (PLTM). Phase transitions occurring on cooling and subsequent reheating runs
performed between −160 °C and a temperature above the respective melting points were studied by DSC. The thermal cycles were
also followed by PLTM. Details about the dynamic of the crystallization front taken from microscopic observations are given.
An explanation of the results on the basis of molecular supramolecular recognition is advanced.
Authors:D. Minić, D. Manasijević, Jelena Ðokić, Dragana Živković, and Ž. Živković
In this paper there are presented the results of the characterization and thermal analysis of the slag from the magnesium
plant ‘Bela Stena’, Serbia.
The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (LOM) and X-ray diffraction
(XRD) were used for chemical and mineralogical analysis of the solidified slag samples. Differential thermal analysis (DTA),
thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis and thermal microscopy results were used for determination of characteristic phase transformations.
The solidified slag shows dicalcium silicate based structure. Magnesium is mostly present in the form of the following minerals:
periclase, merwinite and melilite.
Authors:Teresa Maria, A. Lopes Jesus, and M. Eusébio
In this study, the thermal behavior of butanediol isomers is investigated for temperatures ranging from 103 to 303 K using
differential scanning calorimetry, complemented, when necessary, by polarized light thermal microscopy. The butanediol isomers
display quite different thermal behaviors: for 1,2- and 1,3-isomers, glass transition is the only thermal event observed;
for 1,4-butanediol, crystallization occurs on cooling even at a high scanning rate and no glass formation was detected; and
for the 2,3-isomer, glass or crystal formation is dependent on the experimental conditions employed. The glass-forming ability
of the isomers is correlated with data available on their molecular symmetry.
The application of modulated temperature programs to thermomechanical analysis can be used to separate the reversible nature
of thermal expansion from irreversible deformation arising from creep under the applied load or changes in dimensions due
to relaxation of orientation. The effect of experimental variables and calibration are described. Modulated temperature TMA
allows the time-dependent nature of thermal expansivity to be studied. Measurements made under compression afford a means
of measuring the thermal expansivity of soft specimens independently of initial load. Application of these principles to scanning
thermal microscopy leads to a novel method of generating image contrast based upon local changes thermal expansivity of a
Authors:Elena Badea, Giuseppe Della Gatta, and Petru Budrugeac
State Archives of Florence are reported. Parameters of their full denaturation endotherms, shrinkage temperature, T s , measured by thermalmicroscopy and damage scores are listed in Table 4 . Damage scores indicate a net ranking of parchments in three