Temperature is a dominant factor in rice development. Various thermal time methods are a possible way to model the development, and are able to predict phenological stages such as flowering. In our studies three different bilinear models were studied concerning the predicting of duration from emergence to flowering of rice based on phenological data collected from rice experiments carried out in the Irrigation Research Institute between 1991 and 1999 with the rice variety Ringola. The advance from linear model, which is preferred in agriculture involves an upper threshold temperature as a second parameter, and describes the development rate with a constant (Method 1) and two different steepness functions of linear decrease (Method 2 and 3) above this threshold. The duration of the phenological phase showed only slight variations (coefficient of variation, CV=6.43), thus the average number of days offered an acceptable prediction. The linear method did not show a significant improvement (CV=3.96) on the level P=5%. However the three tested bilinear methods resulted in significant development (CV=2.75; 2.71 and 2.73) if adequate parameters were applied. The distribution of variation coefficients according to different parameter combinations gave information on sensitivity of methods, while the adequate parameters of lower and upper thresholds provided some hints about climatic demands of rice.
This has been the most future-oriented workshop in my memory. Many participants are thinking about the next experiments to perform, new phenomena to study, and new parameters to measure. We look forward to new optical correlations, both with exciting radiation and intrinsic fluorescence. We very badly need positron and positronium binding energies to atoms, molecules, and radicals. We very badly need work functions, band gaps and edges, and trap depths for positron and positronium in molecular liquids and solids. The binding energies of positronium itself in various molecular materials is an important and poorly understood quantity. New data presented at this workshop on the energy of positronium at its formation, and its thermalization time, are most significant,3 and we look forward to refinements in those measurements and in their interpretation. We need to understand the thermalization times of positrons much better than we do. The role of voids and/or surfaces in positronium formation needs to be illuminated, including numerical estimates and measurements for the cross section of this most important process.Finally, a note of thanks and appreciation to the hard-working organizers of this workshop, without whose selfless labors we would not have enjoyed the many benefits of talking face to face with our colleagues from far away.
Authors:J. Lerchner, D. Mueller-Hagen, H. Roehr, A. Wolf, F. Mertens, R. Mueller, W. Witte, and I. Klare
response time (delay between sampling and signal provision) is only depending on the thermaltime constants of the calorimeter. Furthermore, amplification processes such as PCR or enzyme catalysed reactions are not necessary. This essentially simplifies the
Authors:Hsiao-Fang Lee, Benedict Samuel, and M. Haque
resistance, L and S are the length and cross-sectional area of the specimen, and γ is the characteristic thermaltime constant for the one-dimensional thermal transport process.
The conventional 3& setup for ( a