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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Z. Yermiyahu, I. Lapides, and S. Yariv

Abstract  

An intense blue organo-clay color pigment was obtained by adding naphthyl-1-ammonium chloride to a Na-montmorillonite aqueous suspension followed by treatment with sodium nitrite. This treatment resulted in the synthesis of the azo dye 4-(1-naphthylazo)-1-naphthylamine adsorbed onto the clay. The pigment was subjected to thermo-XRD-analysis and the diffractograms were curve-fitted. Heating naphthylammonium-montmorillonite at 360°C resulted in the evolution of the amine at temperatures lower than those required for the formation of charcoal and consequently the clay collapsed. On the other hand, heating the pigment at 360°C resulted in the conversion of the adsorbed azo dye into charcoal. The clay did not collapse, thus proving that the azo dye was located inside the interlayer space. Before the thermal treatment a short basal spacing in the pigment compared with that in the ammonium clay (1.28 and 1.35 nm, respectively) indicated stronger surface π interactions between the clayey O-plane and the azo dye than between this plane and naphthylammonium cation. The amount of dye after one aging-day of the synthesis-suspension increased with [NaNO2]/[C10H7NH3] ratio but did not increase with naphthylammonium when the [NaNO2]/[C10H7NH3] ratio remained 1. After 7 and 56 aging days it decreased, indicating that some of the dye decomposed during aging.

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Summary  

Co- and Ni-montmorillonites adsorb in aqueous suspensions up to 13 mmol alizarinate per 100 g clay, onto the broken-bonds whereas Cu-clay adsorbs up to 25 mmol dye per 100 g clay into the interlayer space. Unloaded Co-, Ni- and Cu-clays and samples loaded with increasing amounts of alizarinate, were gradually heated in air to 360C and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. All diffractograms were curve-fitted. Fitted diffractograms of non-heated samples, showed two peak components labeled C and D, at1.22 and1.32 nm, characterizing tactoids with mono- and non-complete bilayers of water, respectively. After heating at 120C component D decreased or disappeared and two new components A and B appeared at0.99 and1.08 nm, representing collapsed tactoids and tactoids with interlamellar oxy-cations, respectively. At 250C, C and D decreased or disappeared but A and B appeared in all fitted diffractograms. Co- and Ni-clay after heating at 360C did not show C and D. Components A and B proved that these clays collapsed indicating that initially there was no alizarinate in the interlayers. At 360C, C and D persisted in the fitted-diffractograms of Cu-clay, representing tactoids with interlamellar charcoal formed from the partial oxidation of adsorbed dye initially located in the interlayers.

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Summary Thermo-XRD-analysis is applied to identify whether or not the adsorbed organic species penetrates into the interlayer space of the smectites mineral. In this technique an oriented smectite sample is gradually heated to temperatures above the irreversible dehydration of the clay, and after each thermal treatment is diffracted by X-ray at ambient conditions. In the thermal treatment of organo-clays, under air atmosphere at temperatures above 250°C, the organic matter is in part oxidized and charcoal is formed from the organic carbon. In inert atmosphere e.g. under vacuum above 250°C the organic matter is pyrolyzed and besides small molecules, charcoal is formed. If the adsorbed organic compound is located in the interlayer space, the charcoal is formed in that space, preventing the collapse of the clay. A basal spacing of above 1.12 nm suggests that during the adsorption the organic compound penetrated into the interlayer space. Thermo-XRD-analyses of montmorillonite complexes with anilines, fatty acids, alizarinate, protonated Congo red and of complexes of other smectites with acridine orange are described. To obtain information about spacings of the different tactoids that comprise the clay mixture, curve-fitting calculations on the X-ray diffractograms were adapted.

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Abstract  

In the present research we studied the effect of the solvent used, whether it was polar water or a non-polar organic solvent (n-hexane or n-hexadecane), on the basal-spacing and bulk structure of the sorbate-sorbent complexes obtained by the secondary adsorption of nitrobenzene and m-nitrophenol by two types of organo-montmorillonites. X-ray measured basal spacings before and after thermal treatments up to 360°C. The organo-clays were synthesized, with 41 and 90% replacement of the exchangeable Na+ by hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), with mono-and bilayers of HDTMA cations in the interlayer space, labelled OC-41 and OC-90, respectively. After heating at 360°C both organo-clays showed spacing at 1.25–1.28 nm, due to the presence of interlayer-charcoal, indicating that in the preheated organo-clays the HDTMA was located in the interlayer. The thermo-XRD-analysis of Na-clay complexes showed that from organic solvents both sorbates were adsorbed on the external surface but from water they were intercalated. m-Nitrophenol complexes of both organo-clays obtained in aqueous suspensions contain water molecules. Spacings of nitrobenzene complexes of OC-41 and OC-90 and those of nitrophenol complexes of OC-41 showed that the adsorbed molecules were imbedded in cavities in the HDTMA layers. Adsorption of m-nitrophenol by OC-90 from water and n-hexane resulted in an increase of basal spacing (0.21 and 0.29 nm, respectively) suggesting the existence of a layer of nitrophenol molecules sandwiched between two parallel HDTMA layers.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: E. T. Stepkowska, J. M. Blanes, A. Justo, M. A. Aviles, and J. L. Perez-Rodriguez

Summary Two hydrated and aged cement pastes from India (NCB), w/c=0.4, of a similar chemical composition but of a different specific surface and different strength (OPC, C-33 and C-43), hydrated at w/c=0.4 for 1 month, were studied by XRD after 1 year and 5-6 year ageing on contact with air. They were tested by static heating (SH) in fresh state, and by DTA/DTG/TG, IR and mass spectrometry (MS), after ageing, presented elsewhere. The main XRD peaks of (i) portlandite were decreasing with T and disappearing about 450°C, (ii) calcite peak at room T was small and broad, it increased gradually, especially after portlandite disappearance; above 600°C it was lowered and it was lost above 700°C. Important variation in the d(001) of portlandite with ageing was observed, exceeding the standard value of d(001)=4.895 Å (72-0156). It was higher in the paste C-33 (4.925-4.936 Å), containing more carbonates, than in the paste C-43 (4.916-4.927 Å). Small variations only were found in the value of d(101), i.e. 2.627-2.635 Å (nominally 2.622 Å), whereas the d(104) of calcite could be used as internal standard and other calcium carbonates (vaterite and aragonite) showed a small variation only. The increase ind(hkl) with temperature was straight linear (in portlandite ?d(001)=0.095 Å, at 30-400°C) and the thermal expansion coefficient estimated thereform was high (4.75-4.95·10-5 K-1). Close to the T of decomposition the ?d/?T became steeper. The thermal variation of d(104)=3.035 Å of calcite (?d=0.015 Å at 30-400°C) was smaller than that ofd(101) of portlandite (?d=0.025 Å at 30-400°C) and was similar in C-33 and C-43. The thermal expansion coefficient was 1.54 10-5 K-1, thus higher than the reported aa=0.65·10-5 K-1.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of the organic anionic dye Congo red (CR) by montmorillonite saturated with Na+, Cs+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ was investigated by XRD of unwashed and washed samples after equilibration at 40% humidity and after heating at 360 and at 420°C. The clay was treated with different amounts of CR, most of which was adsorbed. Clay samples, untreated with CR, after heating showed collapsed interlayer space. Unwashed and washed samples, which contained CR, before heating were characterized by three peaks or shoulders, labeled A (at 0.96-0.99 nm, collapsed interlayers), B (at 1.24-1.36 nm) and C (at 2.10-2.50 nm). Peak B represents adsorbed monolayers of water and dye anions inside the interlayer spaces. Peak C represents interlayer spaces with different orientations of the adsorbed water and organic matter. Diffractograms of samples with small amounts of dye were similar to those without dye showing peak B whereas diffractograms of most samples with high amounts of dye showed an additional peak C. Heated unwashed and washed samples were also characterized by three peaks or shoulders, labeled A' (at 0.96 nm), B' (at 1.10-1.33 nm) and C' (at 1.61-2.10 nm), representing collapsed interlayers, and interlayers with charcoal composed of monolayers or multilayers of carbon. When the samples were heated from 360 to 420°C some of the charcoal monolayers underwent rearrangement to multilayers. In the case of Cu the charcoal decomposed and oxidized. The present results show that most of the adsorbed dye was located inside the interlayer space.

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Abstract  

Montmorillonite (M) saturated with H+,Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,NH4 +,Mg2+,Ca2+,Sr2+,Ba2+,Mn2+,Co2+,Cu2+,Al3+ and Fe3+ were dry-ground with urea (U) in mass ratios U/M between 0.1 and 2.0 in an agate mortar and diffracted by X-ray. Extensive swellings occurred with H-, Li-, Na-, di-and trivalent cation-clays, suggesting the formation of urea-montmorillonite intercalation complexes. Mechanochemically treated samples were heated at different temperatures up to 375°C. The rise in temperature was accompanied by a decrease in the basal spacing. There was a correlation between the results of the thermo-XRD-analysis and the fine structures of the urea-montmorillonite complexes described in the literature. Five stages in the basal spacing vs. temperature curves were identified. In the first stage (at 150°C) the decrease was due to dehydration. In the second stage (175°C) this dehydration was accompanied by some thermal intercalation of excess urea. The other stages (at 225, 325 and 375°C) were associated with the degradation of urea and the condensation of the degraded species to polymeric products. At 375°C Li-, Na-, K-NH4-, Mh-, Co- and Cu-montmorillonite collapsed, indicating that urea was evolved. The other urea-clay complexes did not collapse due to intercalated polymers formed by the degradation products of urea.

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Thermal analysis of hexadecyltrimethylammonium-montmorillonites

Part 2. Thermo-XRD-spectroscopy-analysis

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Isaak Lapides, Mikhail Borisover, and Shmuel Yariv

curves of HDTMA-MONT, which were recorded by He et al. [ 18 ]. Thermo-XRD-analysis of organoclays was previously described [ 19 ]. This study deals with thermo-XRD-analysis of freeze-dried Na-MONT, OC-41, and OC-90. The unheated and heated samples

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structures and properties are required. During thermal analysis of HDTMA-MONT (DTG, thermo-C and H analyses, thermo-IR-spectroscopy analysis, and thermo-XRD analysis), three types of intercalation charcoal-MONT complexes were identified: (1) LTSC

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Abstract  

DMSO-kaolinite complexes of low- and high-defect Georgia kaolinite (KGa-1 and KGa-2, respectively) were investigated by thermo-XRD-analysis. X-ray patterns showed that DMSO was intercalated in both kaolinites with a d(001)-value of 1.11 nm (type I complex). The samples were gradually heated up to 170°C and diffracted by X-ray at room-temperature. With the rise in temperature, due to the thermal evolution of the guest molecules, the relative intensity of the 1.11 nm peak decreased and that of the 0.72 nm peak (neat kaolinite) increased indicating that the fraction of the non-intercalated tactoids increased. The 1.11 peak disappeared at 130–140°C. During the thermal treatment of both complexes two additional peaks appeared at 110 and 120°C, respectively, with d-values of 0.79–0.94 and 0.61–0.67 nm in DMSO-KGa-1 and 0.81–0.86 and 0.62–0.66 nm in DMSO-KGa-2, indicating the formation of a new phase (type II complex). The new complex was obtained by the dehydration of type I complex and was composed of intercalated DMSO molecules which did not escape. The new peaks disappeared at 150–160°C indicating the complete escape of DMSO.

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