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Abstract  

The vaporization of samples of different chemical and phase compositions in the systems CsCl-LnCl3 (Ln=Ce, Nd) was investigated in the temperature range between 850 and 1050 K by the use of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. The gaseous species CsCl, Cs2Cl2, LnCl3, Ln2Cl6 and CsLnCl4 were identified in the vapour and their partial pressures were determined. The thermodynamic activities of CsCl, and LnCl3 and the free enthalpies of formation for the phases Cs3LnCl6(s) were determined at 950 K in the two phase fields {liquid+Cs3LnCl6(s)}. The correlations between the condensed phase equilibria and the partial pressures of the vapour components at the phase boundaries are discussed and illustrated with the present experimental data.

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Abstract  

Phase diagrams for the systems AgCl-CoCl2 and AgBr-CoBr2 were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The systems are of the eutectic type. Eutectic points are at 271±2 K, 19.5 mol% CoCl2 and 653±2 K, 17.0 mol% CoBr2, respectively. The solid solubility does not exceed 2 and 4 mol% in the systems AgCl-CoCl2 and AgBr-CoBr2, respectively. Thermodynamic activities of components in molten mixtures and molar free enthalpies of mixing were determined for both systems on the basis of liquidus curves. Deviations from ideality were not found to be considerable.

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Abstract  

The partial and integral enthalpies of mixing in liquid Al-Si and Al-Cu alloys were determined by high-temperature isoperibolic calorimetry at 17505 and 15905, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of Al-Si melts were also studied by electromotive force method in temperature range 950-1270 K. The partial and integral excess Gibbs free energies of mixing in liquid Al-Si and Al-Cu alloys were also calculated from literature data on thermodynamic activity of aluminium. The comparison of our experimental results with literature data has been performed.

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Abstract

This article reports the thermodynamic changes of lipid nanoparticles (LN) upon delivery of lipophilic vitamin E derivatives to the skin. Skin penetration of α-tocopherol (α-T) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-Ta) into and across porcine ear skin was investigated in vitro using tape-stripping test in modified Franz diffusion cells. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to characterize the polymorphism of the solid matrix of LN before and after in vitro skin penetration assay. Cetyl palmitate LN with a loading capacity of 20% of vitamin E derivatives (with regard to the lipid matrix) have shown the typical β’ modification of waxes, with a crystallinity index (%CI) between 30 and 40%. Mean particle size and shelf life stability was assessed by static (laser diffractometry, LD) and dynamic (photon correlation spectroscopy, PCS) light scattering techniques. Submicron-sized LN were produced, i.e., 99% of LN showed a size below 600 nm immediately after production. A mean size between 180 and 350 nm (polydispersity index < 0.25) was obtained for LN stored at both 8 and 22 °C, and this size range was kept constant for at least 20 days of shelf life. Quantification of α-T and α-Ta in the skin using tape-stripping provided a 3.4-fold increase in the level of actives within the stratum corneum (SC) and 1.3-fold increase in the viable epidermis (VE). LN increased skin penetration of both actives, following a cumulative release during 8 h in modified Franz diffusion cells. The differences in the distribution levels observed between α-T and α-Ta when delivered via LN was due to the different thermodynamic activity of both actives, i.e., following increased partition coefficient of α-Ta into SC and VE, in comparison to α-T.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Dragana Živković, Aleksandra Mitovski, Ljubiša Balanović, Dragan Manasijević, and Živan Živković

Terpilowski et al. [ 9 ] and Cakir et al. [ 10 ], while Kleppa [ 11 ], Wittig et al. [ 12 ], and Yazawa et al. [ 13 ] expolored them using direct reaction calorimetry, and newest reference by Brunetti et al. [ 14 ]. Optimal thermodynamic activities for indium

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