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Abstract  

The well-known divergence between the present ‘state of the art’ of thermogravimetry and industrial requirements is discussed. Sources of errors are analyzed and the optimization of measuring conditions is discussed regarding the problems associated with static and dynamic (flow) atmospheres, and interactions between materials and gases or vapors. Recommendations for gas-flow control systems and vapor sources are given. Thermal stability and the kinetics of gas-evolving, reversible, thermal decompositions of solids are discussed. The scope of TG-derived kinetics for practical use is examined. Some new characteristic points of TG curves are proposed and defined, e.g. ‘procedure-independent decomposition temperature’ and ‘augmented decomposition temperature’ (obtained at pseudo-equilibrium conditions).

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Volatility rate by thermogravimetry

An ASTM interlaboratory study for ASTM international E2008

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Q Kwok and R Seyler

Abstract  

ASTM Committee E37 on Thermal Measurements published a new test method 'Standard Test Method for Volatility Rate by Thermogravimetry' in June 1999 with the designation E 2008. This approach to assessing volatility utilizes an extension of the pinhole technology previously employed by E37 for vapor pressure determinations using differential scanning calorimetry (ASTM E 1782). After publication of the test method E 2008, an Interlaboratory Study was undertaken to develop a 'Precision and Bias' statement to be assigned with the test method. This paper provides some background data that supports the claim that E 2008 is generally insensitive to experimental conditions other than temperature. The Interlaboratory Study showing the statistical review is also discussed.

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Thermogravimetry and vapor pressure moisture

Applications to determination of residual moisture in BCG vaccine

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J May, A Del Grosso, N Etz, R Wheeler, and L Rey

Abstract  

Thermogravimetry (TG), thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS), and loss-on-drying methodology are used to provide residual moisture results for freeze-dried biological products regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Residual moisture specifications must be met in order to ensure freeze-dried biological product potency and stability throughout the licensed product's shelf life. TG, TG/MS, loss-on-drying and vapor pressure moisture measurements are compared for a BCG Vaccine. Comparisons are made between residual moisture data for the freeze-dried cake and vapor pressure moisture determinations in the space above the freeze-dried cake in the final container. Vapor pressure moisture precision data is presented for α-interferon and BCG vaccine. Impact of residual moisture and vapor pressure moisture upon product stability is presented.

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Abstract  

A new technique, called modulated thermogravimetry, is introduced as a tool for obtaining continuous kinetic information for decomposition and volatilization reactions. The approach makes use of an oscillatory temperature program to obtain kinetic parameters during a mass loss. MTGA™ may be used under quasi-isothermal conditions to observe a single mass loss or may be combined with linear heating rate or Hi-Res™ controlled rate thermogravimetry to scan from one mass loss region to another. Results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by other kinetic methods.

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Abstract  

A possible deduction is proposed of channel length distribution in one-dimensional porous materials from the kinetic data obtained in isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The method utilizes the absorption/desorption of small molecules into one-dimensional nano-channel. In the surface-controlled absorption/desorption, the second derivative with respect to time is directly proportional to the channel-length distribution function. Even in the diffusion-controlled case, the second derivative with respect to the square root of time gives rough information on the distribution function.

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Abstract  

The evaluation of the crystallinity of several samples of ALPO-11 was performed by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Through XRD, the degrees of crystallinity of the samples were determined by the measurement of the area of the peaks at 2γ ranging from 20.7 to 24.1 degrees. The sample that presented the largest area was considered as 100% crystalline and the areas of the other samples were normalized in relation to this. From TG, the degree of crystallinity was determined considering the mass loss in the temperature range from 453 to 653 K that is related to remotion of di-isopropylamine molecules used during the synthesis procedure. The quantity of diisopropylamine on the material is proportional to the degree of crystallinity.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Ana Carla S. L. S. Coutinho, Solange A. Quintella, A. S. Araujo, Joana M. F. Barros, Anne M. G. Pedrosa, V. J. Fernandes Jr., and M. J. B. Souza

Abstract

Nanoporous silica with narrow pore size distribution has attracted increasing attention as a novel material for separations and reactions involving large molecules. SBA-15 has been synthesized in an acidic medium using a triblock copolymer as template. In this work, the SBA-15 was synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment at 373 K for 48 h, of a gel with the following overall molar composition: 1.0TEOS:0.017P123:5.7HCl:193H2O, where TEOS is tetraethyl orthosilicate and P123 is poly(ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane). The obtained material was characterized by thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and BET surface area. A kinetic study using the model free model was accomplished in the stage of decomposition of the template (P123). The obtained value of the apparent activation energy was ca. 131 kJ mol−1.

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used and demonstrate that thermogravimetry (TG) can be a good replacement for these methods. Sampling and current analysis techniques As CFR sect. 211.67 states, “Equipment and utensils shall be cleaned, maintained, and

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Abstract  

Thermogravimetry was employed to study the changes occurring in rubber vulcanizates during devulcanization carried out by microwave treatment, a new promising method of recycling rubber waste. The thermogravimetric parameters T i , T 5 and T p and the compositions of devulcanizates in comparison with vulcanizates were determined. The results obtained allowed estimation of the degree of destruction of the polymer chains in response to microwave treatment and permitted establishment of the most advantageous conditions of devulcanization in order to obtain the best properties of rubber devulcanizates for reuse in rubber processing. The results demonstrated that thermogravimetry is a very useful method for investigation and control of the microwave devulcanization process.

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Abstract  

Water states and displacements can be investigated with thermogravimetry (TG) either in its classical or in the Knudsen version (where standard pans are replaced with Knudsen cells). The case of wheat flour dough is considered in various steps of bread making, namely, mixing, proofing, baking, staling. The split of DTG signals into various components (gaussian functions) support the assumption that the overall dough water is partitioned into various fractions. Few comments are devoted to water displacements during freezing.

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