Information about the kinetics and thermal
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
has been required for safety reasons, due to its broad applications in many
chemical industries. To determine the inherent hazards during H2O2
manufacturing, transportation, disposal, usage, and so on, this study deliberately
selected various H2O2 concentrations
and analyzed them by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition,
thermokinetic parameters were not only established for each of these reactions,
but also aimed at comprehensive, kinetic models with various tests conducted
at different heating rates.
To build up a comprehensive kinetic
model, various tests were conducted by heating rates of 1, 2, 4, 10C
min–1, respectively. According to dynamic
DSC tests, the experimental curves show that H2O2
decomposition has one exothermic peak and may start to decompose under 47–81C.
The total heat of decomposition is about 192–1079 J g–1.
Not only can these results prevent accidents caused by H2O2
during storage and transportation, but also assess its inherent hazards and
thereby design procedures for emergency response while runaway reactions occurring.
Authors:Shang-Hao Liu, Chun-Ping Lin, and Chi-Min Shu
by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) [ 7 ].
We investigated the thermokineticparameters for CHP, DTBP, and TBPB by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) [ 8 ]. The activation energy ( E a ) for CHP, DTBP, and TBPB at different
Authors:Lung-Chang Tsai, Yun-Ting Tsai, Chun-Ping Lin, Shang-Hao Liu, Tsung-Chih Wu, and Chi-Min Shu
examined using a thermal dynamic calorimeter (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) and isothermal microcalorimeter (thermal activity monitor III, TAM III) to evaluate basic exothermic decomposition and various thermokineticparameters. Furthermore
about the kinetics and thermal decomposition of dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is
required for safety concerns, due to its wide applications and accident cases.
To understand the inherent hazards during DCPO manufacturing, we selected
various concentrations in different stages and analyzed them by differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC). We evaluated thermokinetic parameters to set up
a simple, but comprehensive kinetic model, with various tests conducted at
heating rates of 2, 4, 6 and 10C min-1
. Subsequently, we established a more efficient, resource-effective, and cost-effective
model of safety evaluation for DCPO with different concentrations, according
to thermokinetic parameters, such as activation energy Ea
is 125.35 kJ mol-1 , frequency factor k0 is 3.12410 12
s-1 , reaction order n is 0.9 and heat of
decomposition ΔH is 750.52 J g-1
for DCPO 99 mass%.
Authors:C. Chang, Y. Chou, J. Tseng, M. Liu, and C. Shu
Many concerns over unsafe or unknown properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been raised. The thermal characteristics
regarding stability would represent potential hazards during the production or utilization stage and could be determined by
calorimetric tests for various thermokinetic parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate
the thermokinetic parameters for MWNTs at various compositions.
Thermoanalytical curves showed that the average heat of decomposition (ΔHd) of the MWNTs samples in a manufacturing process was about 31,723 J g−1, by identifying them as an inherently hazardous material. In this study, significant thermal analysis appeared in the presence
of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). From the DSC experiments, the purification process of MWNTs could induce an unexpected reaction in the condition of batch
addition with reactants of H2SO4. The results can be applied for designing emergency relief system and emergency rescue strategies during a perturbed situation
Authors:R Chang, J Tseng, J Jehng, C Shu, and H Hou
this study, a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) with various
contaminants, such as H2SO4
and NaOH, was prepared in order to elucidate the cause of these accidents
and the results of upset conditions. Thermokinetic parameters were acquired
by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2
(VSP2). In addition, we simulated the thermokinetic parameters and created
kinetic models for the specific contaminants. The results indicate that the
thermal hazard of MEKPO is less than that of the mixed MEKPO with the above-mentioned
contaminants. Consequently, the evaluated parameters could be used to prevent
any unexpected exothermic runaway reaction or to alleviate hazards to an acceptable
extent, if such a reaction occurs.
Organic peroxides (OPs) have caused many momentous explosions and runaway reactions, resulting from thermal instability, chemical
pollutants, and even mechanical shock. In Taiwan, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO), due to its unstable reactive nature, has caused
two thermal explosions and runaway reaction incidents in the manufacturing process. To evaluate thermal hazards of DCPO in
a batch reactor, we studied thermokinetic parameters, such as heat of decomposition (†Hd), exothermic onset temperature (T0), maximum temperature rise ((dT/dt)max), maximum pressure rise ((dP/dt)max), self-heating rate (dT/dt), etc., via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2).
Authors:Y. Chou, J. Huang, J. Tseng, S. Cheng, and C. Shu
Organic peroxides have caused many serious explosions and fires that were promoted by thermal instability, chemical pollutants,
and even mechanical shock. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been employed in polymerization and for producing phenol and dicumyl
peroxide (DCPO). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to assess the thermal hazards associated with CHP contacting
sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0), peak temperature (Tmax), and enthalpy (ΔH) were obtained. Experimental data were obtained using DSC and curve fitting using thermal safety software (TSS) was employed
to obtain the kinetic parameters. Isothermal microcalorimetry (thermal activity monitor, TAM) was used to investigate the
thermal hazards associated with storing of CHP and CHP mixed with NaOH under isothermal conditions.
TAM showed that in the temperature range from 70 to 90°C an autocatalytic reaction occurs. This was apparent in the thermal
curves. Depending on the operating conditions, NaOH may be one of the chemicals or catalysts incompatible with CHP. When CHP
was mixed with NaOH, the T0 is lower and reactions become more complex than those associated with assessment of the decomposition of the pure peroxide.
The data by curve fitting indicated that the activation energy (Ea) for the induced decomposition is smaller than that for decomposition of CHP in the absence of hydroxide.
Authors:Kuang-Hua Hsueh, Wei-Ting Chen, Yung-Chuan Chu, Lung-Chang Tsai, and Chi-Min Shu
are not well understood. Due to the hazardous consequences of decomposition of BTBPC and its extensive use in the industry, we made efforts to understand the runaway reaction phenomena by evaluating the thermokineticparameters.
In this study
Authors:Jo-Ming Tseng, Tung-Feng Hsieh, Yi-Ming Chang, Ya-Chen Yang, Lu-Yen Chen, and Chun-Ping Lin
study was applied to simulate 0.5-L and 25-kg containers with the aim of developing a reliable procedure to replace the complex method for evaluating the thermokineticparameters and predicting the thermal hazard of LOPs. The model may be applied to the