The combined thermogravimetric (TG) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used for studying the gaseous compounds
evolved at thermooxidation of oil shale samples from different deposits (Estonia, Jordan, Israel). In addition to H2O and CO2as the major species, the formation and emission of CO, SO2, HCl and a number of organic species as methane, ethane, ethylene, methanol, formic acid, formaldehyde, chlorobenzene, etc.
was determined. Differences in the absorbance of respective bands in FTIR spectra depending on the origin of oil shale and
on the heating rate used were established.
Approximately one million tons of semicoke (SC) is formed and stored in open air dumps every year in the production of shale
oil by processing Estonian oil shale (OS). The content of different harmful compounds as sulphides, PAH, phenols, etc. in
SC make these dumps one of the most serious sources of environmental contamination. The aim of this work was to study the
behaviour of sulphur compounds in OS and its SC, formation of SO2 and possibilities of binding it into the solid phase during thermooxidation of fuel blends based on SC. Blends modified with
SC ash addition were studied as well. It was determined that SO2 emission in thermooxidation of SC samples started at 280-300C and proceeded with a steady speed up to 580-600C and the
amount of sulphur evolved was 5-10% from the total content of sulphur in the sample. The amount of SO2 emitted decreased depending on the mass ratio of the composite fuels from 49-56 to 15-35% during thermooxidation of OS samples
studied or their blends with SC, respectively, from 43-80% for coal samples to 13-60% for their blends with SC and to 2-13%
during thermooxidation of these blends modified with SC ash addition. In the products of thermooxidation formed at 800-900C
the only sulphur containing phase was CaSO4, at 650C also traces of CaS and CaMg3(SO4)4 were fixed.
Methods for kinetic description of induction periods,
based on the single-step kinetics approximation and various expressions of
the temperature functions, are presented. The formulas for evaluation of both
isothermal and non-isothermal lengths of induction periods are derived. Use
of the formulas is demonstrated on the thermooxidative degradation of polyolefines.
The kinetic parameters obtained from isothermal and non-isothermal experiments
are compared and possible reasons of inconsistencies are analyzed. Applications
of the determination of induction periods for thermooxidation of various systems
are reviewed. The theory outlined in this paper can be applied not only for
thermooxidation in condensed phase, but also for other processes exhibiting
the induction period, such as the curing of rubber compounds, recrystallization
of nickel sulfide and crystallization of silicate and metal glasses.
The hardening process of bond compositions is very important technological operation from the point of view of quality and
reliability of high-voltage insulation systems. The thermal analysis TMA, DTMA and DTA were used and compared for detection
of the bond compositions.
The thermooxidative degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and PVC/CPE blend 50/50 was
investigated by means of dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis in the flowing atmosphere of air. To estimate the
thermooxidative stability of the samples the characteristics of thermogravimetric (TG) curves were used. Kinetic parameters
(the apparent activation energy E and preexponential factor Z) were calculated after isoconversional method for the first
stage of dynamic degradation where dehydrochlorination (DHCl) of PVC and/or CPE is the main degradation reaction. Despite
the chemical resemblance, the degradation mechanisms of CPE and PVC are different, as a consequence of differences in microregularity
of the corresponding polymer chains. The addition of Ca/Zn carboxylates as well as the ratio of Ca and Zn carboxylates have
considerably different influence on the investigated polymers.
Authors:P. Šimon, D. Hynek, Marta Malíková, and Zuzana Cibulková
Extrapolations of the accelerated thermooxidative tests, based on the Arrhenius and two non-Arrhenius temperature functions,
have been tested for 26 data sets. The data cover a wide range of materials from polyolefins and other polymers to biodiesel,
edible oils and dried milk. It has been found that the extrapolation from high-temperature data to ambient temperature based
on the Arrhenius temperature function leads to the estimations of unrealistically long durability. The best estimations corresponding
most with experience are obtained for the extrapolation based on the temperature function k(T)=Akexp(DT).
Authors:P. Šimon, Marta Fratričová, P. Schwarzer, and H.-W. Wilde
of poly(ester-urethanes), poly(ether-urethanes) and poly(acrylic-urethanes),
as a base for automotive paintings in interior applications, has been studied
by DSC. The samples were clearcoat and black-pigmented paints, unstabilized
and stabilized with HALS Tinuvin 292, UV absorber Tinuvin 1130 and antioxidant
Hostanox O3, exposed to weathering in Xenotest and in Arizona desert. From
the dependences of oxidation onset temperature on the heating rate, the kinetic
parameters enabling to calculate the oxidation induction time for a chosen
temperature have been obtained. From the values of oxidation induction time,
the protection factors of the additives and the residual stability of the
polymer after an ageing stress has been evaluated. It has been shown that
the equivalence between the two methods of weathering depends on the polymer
composition. A new criterion for the evaluation of synergism/antagonism of
additives in the stabilizing mixture has been proposed.
Authors:Qiang Wu, Jianwen Bao, Chuck Zhang, Richard Liang, and Ben Wang
epoxy carbon fiber composites. Their flammability behaviors were investigated by cone calorimeter. The thermo-oxidation stability and low gas permeability of buckypapers or CNF nanofiber are key roles in improving flame-retardant properties of composites