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In a long-term experiment on continuous maize set up by Béla Győrffy in 1959, changes in biotic and abiotic environmental factors were studied over time. The long-term effects and stability of the cropping systems, the year effects and the genotype × environment interactions were analysed. The original aim of the experiment was to determine whether the NPK nutrients in farmyard manure could be replaced partially or entirely by inorganic NPK fertiliser. In the present experiment the effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertiliser and the year effect on yield and yield stability were studied for four years (2005–2008). Various levels of farmyard manure and mineral fertiliser induced significant changes in the yield, harvest index, thousand-kernel mass, grain number per ear and grain protein content.

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Gyenesné-Hegyi, Z., Kizmus, L., Záborszky, S., Marton, L. C. (2001): Trends in the protein and oil contents and thousand-kernel mass of maize under various ecological conditions. Növénytermelés , 50 , 385

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The water content of the grain, the cob and the internode below the ear, and the thousand-kernel mass of early (Mv 251, Ipoly) and late (Tisza, Mv 500) maize varieties were recorded three times a day between 7 and 17 November 2006.No daily drying was observed in the moisture content of the kernels, cobs or ear stalks. The only exception was the internode below the ear, which tended to dry gradually. Although significant differences were found between the varieties, these probably developed prior to the testing period, and did not change to any great extent during the measurements. From the point of view of harvest date, no substantial change can be expected in the equilibrium water content reached for each variety at different moisture levels, so it is unlikely that savings can be made on drying costs.

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Changes in the water content of 22 maize varieties were investigated during the period between physiological maturity and harvesting. It was found that neither the grain moisture, the cob moisture, the moisture content of the internode below the ear nor the thousand-kernel mass changed to a statistically significant extent. No significant water uptake or drying in excess of random variation, sufficient to influence the choice of harvesting date, could be detected during the test period.Nevertheless, considerable differences were recorded between the varieties for the moisture contents in the cob and in the internode below the ear. These could be of economic importance in choosing varieties and harvesting dates. The differences between the varieties can be attributed to the diverse genetic backgrounds, suggesting that breeding could lead to the development of maize varieties with low grain moisture at harvest.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Zlatko Svečnjak, Boris Varga, Darko Grbeša, Milan Pospišil, and Dubravko Maćešić

533 540 Gyenes-Hegyi Z. — Kizmus L. — Zaborszky S. — Marton L.C. (2001): Trends in the protein and oil contents and thousand kernel mass of maize under various ecological

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The adaptability of twelve single cross maize hybrids was investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear.Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpács, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R 2 =0.66). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.

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Some agronomical characters of twelve single-cross maize hybrids were investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand-kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear. Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpács, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R2=0.658). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.

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. 6. Gyenes-Hegyi , Zs. – Kizmus, L. – Záborszky, S. – Marton L., Cs. : 2001 . Trend sin the protein and oil contents and thousand kernel mass of maize under various ecological conditions . Növénytermelés. 50 . 4

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. (2001): Trends in the protein and oil contents and thousand kernel mass of maize under various ecological conditions. Növénytermelés , 50 , 385–394. Marton L. C. Trends in

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Hegyi, Z., Kizmus, L., Záborszky, S., Marton, L. C. (2001): Trends in the protein and oil contents and thousand kernel mass of maize under various ecological conditions. Növénytermelés , 50 , 385

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