Authors:József Kutasi, László Jakab, Viktor Jurkovich, and Pál Rafai
Thymus vulgaris L. (garden thyme) is an aromatic perennial herbaceous plant, which belongs to the genus Lamiales and family Lamiaceae. The plant is native to Mediterranean countries, where it blossoms in the period of May–July. In Central European
Badi, H. N., Yazdani, D., Ali, S. M., Nazari, F. (2004): Effects of spacing and harvesting time on herbage yield and quality/quantity of oil in thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. Industrial Crops and Products , 19
Authors:Éva Németh-Zámbori, Zsuzsanna Pluhár, Krisztina Szabó, Mahmoud Malekzadeh, Péter Radácsi, Katalin Inotai, Bonifác Komáromi, and Katarzyna Seidler-Lozykowska
Babei , K. , Majid , A. D. , Sanavi , M. , Jabari , R. ( 2010 ) Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) . Iran J. Med. Arom. Plants 2 , 239 – 251 .
Authors:I. Saoud, L. Hamrouni, S. Gargouri, I. Amri, M. Hanana, T. Fezzani, S. Bouzid, and B. Jamoussi
Omidbeygi, M., Barzegar, M., Hamidi, Z. & Naghdibadi, H. (2007): Antifungal activity of thyme, summer savory and clove essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in liquid medium and tomato paste. Fd Control , 18 , 1518
Authors:Victoria S. Sarafian and Tsvetana T. Marinova
The lysosomal membrane-associated glycoproteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are the major constituents of lysosomal membranes with still undefined biological functions. As autophagy is an alternative model of programmed cell death in which lysosomes play a crucial role, we hypothesize that LAMPs might participate in this phenomenon in the involuting thymus. Thymic glands from cases with acute (infection induced) and chronic (senile) involution were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of LAMPs. In acute involution LAMP-1 was localized mainly in medullary epithelial cells, in single macrophages and lymphocytes. Hassall's corpuscules were stained less intensely as compared to control specimens. The quantitative analysis showed a significantly elevated LAMP-2 expression compared to LAMP-1. LAMPs were detected with very slight reactivity in the senile thymus. The enhanced expression of LAMPs, and mainly of LAMP-2, in epithelial cells of incidentally involuted thymus might be an indicator of acute cell injury requiring autophagic degradation of damaged structures. The diminished expression of LAMPs in age-involuted thymus could be a sign of the morphological reorganization and the functional disregulation of the gland. In conclusion, we present novel evidence for differential expression of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in thymic involution suggesting their possible involvement in the process of accidental involution of the thymic gland.
Authors:A. Tsigouri, M. Passaloglou-Katrali, and O. Sabatakou
Characterisation of unifloral honeys is a hard task that involves evaluation of the results of melissopalynological, physicochemical and sensory analyses. Finding reliable chemical markers to ascertain botanical origin of honey is of great importance to the beekeeping industry. The purpose of this work was to analyse untreated Greek thyme honeys and evaluate the possibility of establishing chemical markers for this honey by using a simple and reliable analytical method. The analytical method employed consists of extraction on octadecylsilica cartridges, GC separation and FID detection. The limits of detection were 30, 20, 15 and 15 μg kg
for eucalyptol, camphor, menthol and thymol, respectively, while the limit of quantification for each substance was 50 μg kg
. Overall recoveries were >85%. The results showed that none of the 47 thyme honey samples analysed contained eucalyptol or camphor. All samples contained menthol and thymol, but the concentrations were very low ranging from traces to 51.3 μg kg
and 65 μg kg
Authors:Iveta Placha, Lubica Chrastinova, Andrea Laukova, Klaudia Cobanova, Jana Takacova, Viola Strompfova, Maria Chrenkova, Zuzana Formelova, and Stefan Faix
The effects of 0.5 g thyme oil per kg dry matter (DM) of diet on duodenal tissue integrity, antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and selected microbiota in the caecum and faeces of rabbits were studied. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into two groups and were fed a commercial granulated diet for growing rabbits (CD) with access to water ad libitum. The first group was fed the CD, while to the CD of the second group thyme oil was added. Intestinal integrity was tested by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thyme oil significantly increased the value of total antioxidant status (TAS) in the blood plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver, and it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the duodenal tissue. Thyme oil resulted in strengthened intestinal integrity, as the essential oil supplementation significantly increased TEER values in the experiment. The faecal microbiota of rabbits was almost completely balanced in both groups, and only a slight decrease was found in the microbial population at day 42 of the trial. In both groups, the bacterial counts were generally lower in the caecum than in the faecal samples. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.5 g/kg DM thyme oil may improve intestinal integrity, and it may have an antioxidant effect. A tendency was also found for thyme oil to stimulate the abundance of some microbes beneficial in the rabbit gut.
Authors:M. Orłowska, K. Pytlakowska, A. Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, R. Musioł, M. Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. Sajewicz, and T. Kowalska
In this study, six numerical data sets are presented valid for eighteen thyme (Thymus L.) species and characterizing three biological properties of these herbs, i.e., antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity. Four data sets characterize antioxidant properties, one data set characterizes antibacterial property, and one data set characterizes anticancer activity. Antioxidant properties were measured with two free radical standards (DPPH and ABTS), two free radical scavenger standards (trolox and gallic acid), and three analytical techniques (EPR spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible [UV–vis] spectrophotometry, and the dot blot test with bioautographic detection). Antibacterial activity was tested upon the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) strain, and anticancer activity was evaluated upon the human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116). It was found out that the thyme extracts characterize with all three biological activities (yet with anticancer activity not very strongly pronounced) and that in quantitative terms, each activity strongly depends on the thyme species considered. An ultimate goal of this study was to investigate if any quantitatively confirmed correlation exists among these three biological activities, which might point out to a common mechanism of their action. To this effect, six sets of numerical data underwent hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis. Based on the results obtained, no quantitative correlation was established among antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity of the thyme species, which seems indicative of different molecular mechanisms of these three actions.