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The weed mass (g m −2 ) recorded in the first 15 years (1965–1979) of a long-term, bifactorial, split-plot herbicide experiment (main plots: two types of soil cultivation, subplots: 7 herbicide treatments, with two control plots) without crops indicated that the best weed control was achieved with 10 kg ha −1 rates of simazine and atrazine. These were followed by 5 kg ha −1 ametryn, 10 kg ha −1 linuron and 2+2 kg ha −1 2,4-D, all with moderate efficiency, while 5 kg ha −1 prometryn and 10 kg ha −1 monolinuron resulted in poorer weed control. Medium deep ploughing once a year in autumn reduced the weed mass by 36.5%. There was a substantial year effect, well illustrated by the annual changes in weed mass both in the herbicide treatments and in the control plots. In plots treated with simazine and atrazine there was an exponential increase in the weed mass from the 17 th year of the experiment, suggesting the multiplication of weed biotypes resistant to triazine. As a result of some herbicide treatments there was a shift in the monocot-dicot ratio.

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Birkás M, Gyuricza Cs (2004) Relationship between land use and the climatic impacts, (in Hungarian) In: Birkás M, Gyuricza Cs (eds) Soil use. Tillage effect. Soil moisture. Quality Press & Publisher Ltd. Gödöllő

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Sabo, M. Sabo, D. Jug, D. Jug, Ž. Ugarčić-Hardi, and Ž. Ugarčić-Hardi

The effect of tillage systems (TS) on wheat quality traits including grain yield, thousand-kernels weight, hectoliter mass, flour extraction rate and flour rheological properties were evaluated. Five different TS were compared in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production on one experimental field (chernosem) located in the Baranya region, north-eastern Croatia from 1998 to 2001. Tillage systems included conventional tillage (CT), disc harrowing, fine till (DHF), soil loosening (SL) + disc harrowing (DH), disc harrowing, coarse till (DHC) and no-tillage (NT). The most stable grain yield was obtained by DHF and CT in all three experimental years. There was no striking regularity with regard to applied TS and hectoliter mass and thousand-kernels weight. The biggest difference of hectoliter mass was determined between CT and NT. TS had significant influence on the flour extraction rate in all three experimental years. The influence of TS on farinographic parameters was significant for all three experimental years for the quality number. Quality number was greater under CT than under other TS. Tillage effect on extensographic and amylographic parameters in the 3-year average did not show statistically significant differences. To sum up, since disc harrowing (DHF) and (DHC) followed by soil loosening with chisel produced equal grain yield and wheat quality parameters were slightly better than conventional tillage, these systems could be presented as an even handed replacement for ploughing.

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., Gyuricza, C. (eds.), Talajhasználat — Műveléshatás — Talajnedvesség . (Land use — Tillage effect — Soil moisture). Quality-Press Nyomda & Kiadó Kft., Budapest. pp. 10–43. Gyuricza C

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25 30 Licht, M.A., Al-Kaisi, M. 2005. Strip-tillage effect on seedbed soil temperature and other soil physical properties. Soil Till. Res. 80 :233

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