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Abstract  

Issues encountered with dynamic mechanical analysis of artists’ acrylic emulsion paint films are presented alongside modifications to improve controlled relative humidity (RH) experiments using isothermal and thermal scanning conditions. Free films of titanium white (PW6) artists’ acrylic emulsion paints were cast as free films and their viscoelastic properties measured using the tensile mode of the dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA). Artists’ acrylic emulsion paints are within their glass transition temperature region at room temperature and are highly responsive to changes in ambient temperature and relative humidity, hence controlling relative humidity during analysis is vital to the successful analysis of these paints.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: B. Ormsby, G. Foster, T. Learner, S. Ritchie, and M. Schilling

Abstract  

After improvements were made to a modified Polymer Labs MkIII DMTA instrument to facilitate repeatable controlled humidity (RH) experiments using isothermal and thermal scanning conditions, the viscoelastic properties of titanium white pigmented artists’ acrylic emulsion films were measured in tensile mode. The effects of temperature, relative humidity and accelerated ageing regimes on two brands of titanium white paints were explored. These paints are highly responsive to changes in temperature and relative humidity, formulation differences affect properties slightly, and while light ageing had a negligible effect, thermal ageing resulted in decreased storage modulus and increased film density.

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Abstract

Ilmenite is a valuable source of titanium and is applied as the main raw material in the technology of titanium white pigment production. Ilmenite is found in many places in the earth, and its elemental as well as phase compositions very strongly depend on the place of origin. Deposits located in Australia, China, India, and Norway in Europe are well known places where ilmenites are exploited industrially. Main phases that were identified in these ilmenites are ilmenite FeTiO3, hematite Fe2O3, geikielite MgTiO3 and pseudorutile Fe2Ti3O9. Enstatite MgSiO3, MnTiO3, and kleberite (determined also as hydroxylian pseudorutile with approximate formula FeTi3O6(OH)3) are minor phases present in ilmenites. Calorimetric investigations of reactions of these ilmenites with sulphuric acid in standard conditions demonstrated significant differences in the shape of temperature and thermal power curves. On the basis of these investigations, it can be concluded that the shape of the thermal power curve is different for each of ilmenite and can be treated as a fingerprint of their phase composite.

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