The aim of the study was to reveal antioxidant synergism or antagonism between quercetin, rutin and selected tocotrienols in linoleic acid emulsion. The oxidative stress was generated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) or CuSO4; the increase of the concentration of peroxidation products was monitored using fluorescence probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The antioxidant activity of tested substances depends on the form of the antioxidant (aglycone, glycoside), its concentration, localization in the emulsion, and the factors generating oxidative stress. The synergistic effect occurred when the effectiveness of individual antioxidant was relatively weak and mainly when the concentration of antioxidants was in the physiologically significant range of 1 μM. We suggest that tocotrienols were regenerated by flavonoids. The synergism benefitted from the proximity of the localization of interacting antioxidants (e.g. the presence of one of the antioxidants at the oil-water interface).
Tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol are potent antioxidants of rice grains, and they may play an important role in the germination and growth of rice plants. In this study, the objective was to examine the effects of germination time on contents of Toc, T3, GO and ascorbate, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities in the grains of two different rice varieties, namely TN71 and KS139. Samplings were conducted at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after imbibition. The results showed that T3 and GO contents, but not Toc increased during seedling emergence. Toc content showed a trend of decrease from 0 DAI to 6 DAI. Contrasting to KS139, the AsA content in the grains of TN71 increased with increasing DAI. KS139 showed a time-dependent increase in the dehydroascorbate level, while that of TN71 remains unchanged at all times. TN71 showed significant increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the late germination stages (9 DAI); with the exception of APX, KS139 exhibited a relatively constant enzymatic activities throughout the germination period. The changes in the malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels were minimum before 6 DAI, however a significant increase was noted at 9 DAI. This study indicates that besides the enzymatic antioxidants, the increase in T3 and GO contents may play a role in countering the oxidative stress during rice grain germination.
Pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes become increasingly important in the agroindustry due to their bioavailable compounds that have the ability to inhibit the formation and/or to reduce the effective concentration of reactive cell-damaging free radicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of free, and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS assays) as well as the vitamin E and carotenoids contents of non-pigmented and pigmented rice genotypes. The results confirmed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays) of pigmented rice was several-fold greater than non-pigmented ones (4, 4, 3 and 5 times, respectively). Compounds in the free fraction of pigmented rice had higher antioxidant capacity relative to those in the bound form, whereas the non-pigmented rice cultivars exhibited the opposite trend. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid of all rice genotypes, whereas black rice contained protocatechuic and vanillic acids in higher contents than red rice and non-pigmented rice genotypes. For vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) contents, no obvious concentration differences were observed between non-pigmented and pigmented rice, with the black rice exhibiting the highest carotenoid content. Overall, pigmented rice genotypes contain a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, they have great potential as a source of bioactives for developing functional food products with improved health benefits.
31 116 Weber, C., Podda, M., Rallis, M., Thiele, J. J., Traber, M. G., Packer, L. (1997) Efficacy of topically applied tocopherols and tocotrienols in protection of murine skin
. Sen S. Khanna S. Roy 2007 Tocotrienol in health and disease: the other half of the natural vitamin E family Mol. Aspects Med. 28 691 – 728 .
constitutes a group of lipophilic molecules which can be classified into tocopherols, tocotrienols and tocomonenols all of which consisting of a polar head group and a hydrophobic isoprenoid side chain [ 15, 16 ]. In humans, the main biologically active form
1 Introduction Brown rice, obtained from paddy after dehusking is rich in nutritional as well as bio-functional components. It is a rich source of tocopherol, tocotrienol, oryzanol, ferulic acid, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, and γ
substances: tocopherol and tocotrienol. These substances are recognized by the receptors of different hormone-like molecules, as estrogens and endocrine disruptors and can be bound by them ( 11 , 56 ). By this mechanism, they participate in the mechanism of
, reducing sugar, vitamin C, B 2 , B 3 , B 6 , β-carotene, total phenolics, total flavonoids, dietary fibre, tocopherols, and tocotrienols than mature grains ( L in & L ai , 2011 ; J i et al., 2013 ). Although they have a notable potential for use in
.1080/02652040500435295 . 15. Ali H , Shirode AB , Sylvester PW , Nazzal S . Preparation, characterization, and anticancer effects of simvastatin-tocotrienol lipid nanoparticles . Int J Pharm . 2010 . 10.1016/j