Authors:Zs. Szentpétery, M. Jolánkai, Cs. Kleinheincs, and G. Szöllősi
The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials, which were conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Nitrogen fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40 + 40 and 80 + 40 were applied at tillering and after anthesis fazes (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5.). The nitrogen used was 36 % ammonium-nitrate in. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment we analysed the changes of quantity and baking quality of yield. Amount of rainfall during the vegetation period had a significant effect on wheat yield. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period — especially in April and May — had a significant effect, too. It turned out that in drought periods nitrogen top-dressing has a great importance. In the dry 2001–2003 years even the 40 kg/ha dose resulted in extra yield. 80 and 120 kg/ha fertilizer rates was even more effective. The increasing dose of nitrogen top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improving effect in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially great improvement was observed in the case of foreign varieties. Nitrogen top-dressing stabilized the falling number values.
Authors:Zs. Szentpétery, Cs. Kleinheincz, G. Szöllősi, and M. Jolánkai
The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40+40 and 80+40 kg ha-1 active ingredient were applied at tillering and after anthesis (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5). The N-fertilizer applied was ammonium-nitrate in 34% cc. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment the changes of quantity and baking quality of the yield were analysed. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period - especially in April and May - had a strong effect on wheat yield. In drought periods N top-dressing had a great importance. In the dry 2001-2003 years, the 80 and 120 kg ha-1 fertilizer doses were the most effective. The increasing dose of N top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improvement in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially, great improvement was seen in case of foreign varieties that were of lower quality compared to the Hungarian ones. The top-dressing stabilized the falling number values in the 250-350 top range.
Authors:Z. Hegedűs, Z. Szentpétery, K. Kassai, and et al.
The milling and baking quality of wheat is mainly determined by the genetic basis, but may also be influenced by management techniques. Series of winter wheat varieties were examined under identical agronomic conditions in the experimental years of 1996-2001. Weed control, the rate and application time of nitrogen top dressing, the use of insecticide and fungicide and the climate of the production year were evaluated as main factors. In the present study two major characteristics: the protein and gluten content of grain samples, were examined. The effect of nitrogen fertilization proved to have the strongest impact on both quality indexes. no significant quality differences were induced by the various means of weed control. Plant protection treatments had a rather diverse effect on the contents of the protein and gluten in certain years. The protein and gluten values were correlated in all the experimental treatments, but the level of the correlation showed considerable variation. The effect of crop year proved to be the strongest, followed by fertilization, from among the quality-determining factors. The protein versus gluten correlation was also found to be the closest in the case of nitrogen top dressing applications.
Authors:László Simon, Marianna Makádi, György Vincze, Zsuzsanna Uri, Katalin Irinyiné Oláh, László Zsombik, Szabolcs Vígh, and Béla Szabó
A small-plot long-term field fertilization experiment was set up in 2011 with willow (Salix triandra x Salix viminalis ’Inger’) grown as an energy crop in Nyíregyháza, Hungary. The brown forest soil was treated three times (in June 2011, May 2013, May 2016) with municipal biocompost (MBC), municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) or willow ash (WA), and twice (June 2011, May 2013) with rhyolite tuff (RT). In late May – early June 2016 urea (U) and sulphuric urea (SU) fertilizers were also applied to the soil as top-dressing (TD). These fertilizers and amendments were also applied to the soil in 2016 in the combinations; MBC+SU, RT+SU, WA+SU and MSSC+WA. All the treatments were repeated four times. In July 2016 the highest nitrogen concentrations in willow leaves were measured in the U (3.47 m/m%) and SU (3.01 m/m%) treatments, and these values were significantly higher than the control (2.46 m/m%). An excess of nitrogen considerably reduced the Zn uptake of the leaves, with values of 39.5 μg g-1 in the U treatment, 53.4 μg g-1 in the SU treatment, and 63.5 μg g-1 in the control. All other amendments or TDs, except for WA, enhanced the specific potassium concentrations in willow leaves compared to the control. No significant quantities of toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Pb) were transported from soil amendments or TDs to the willow leaves. In July 2016 the most intensive leaf chlorophyll fluorescence was observed in the MSSC and MSSC+WA treatments.