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Abstract

The paper discusses the influence of the Habsburg topographic surveys and cartography on the toponymic landscape of the former crown land of Galicia. Publicly available maps have had a great impact on the geographical names used both by locals and non-locals. The Habsburg toponymic policy was characterized by non-Germanisation of already existing Galician toponyms. The Habsburg toponymic heritage is therefore of double nature: 1) forms of toponyms popularized by Austro-Hungarian maps (especially by Spezialkarte) influenced a wide toponymic usus as well as the toponymy of the later maps (especially interwar-Polish military maps) – these popularized forms may have differed from the names used by the local communities, which could have been caused by a surveyor’s mistake; 2) the topographic and cartographic materials produced by the Austro-Hungarian institutions are a valuable source for toponomastic research. In the paper, the Austro-Hungarian and interwar-Polish topographic manuals are analysed. These documents defined the way a surveyor had to collect and process geographical names. The examples and possible causes of some Polonized forms occurring in Spezialkarte are discussed. Next, the influence of the Austrian maps on the toponymy of Polish maps is explained. Finally, hilarious examples of cartographic name-copying are given.

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A method is presented in this paper for solving a practical problem: how to make georeferenced mosaic of a map series using ground control points and quadratic polynomial transformation for every individual map sheet, if we expect, that after georeferencing the edges of the transformed map sheets should fit together.To solve this problem we can use a constrained polynomial fit method. In this method we use least square adjustment to get the transformation parameters for every individual map sheets, and we define constrains, that the common edges of every two neighboring map sheet should transform similarly. Solving this equation we get the transformation parameters for every single map sheet. Using these parameters for transforming the map sheets, we get georeferenced maps, that automatically fit together in a GIS software.This method has been successfully applied for georeferencing 18 map sheets of the First Topographic Survey of the Habsburg Empire. The resulting georeferenced map has larger residual errors than the individually transformed map sheets, but in exchange for we get a seamless map mosaic, that is more accurate, than the graphically merged and transformed.

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A kazah–magyar együttműködés 2005-ben megszületett ötlete 2007-től valósult meg. Az együttműködés célja a korai türk régészeti örökség kutatása. Ebből a magyar fél (ELTE BTK Régészettudományi Intézet) a Zsetiszu vidéke kora középkori településeinek kutatását vállalta fel. Így kezdetben négy helyszín (Merke, Aszpara, Dzsájszán 27–Terekti 1 és Tölebi) felmérését végeztünk el, 2008-ban pedig megkezdtük a Tölebi határában található 9–10. századi vár régészeti kutatását. A tanulmány célja az eddigi eredmények rövid bemutatása.

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