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Abstract

The paper discusses the influence of the Habsburg topographic surveys and cartography on the toponymic landscape of the former crown land of Galicia. Publicly available maps have had a great impact on the geographical names used both by locals and non-locals. The Habsburg toponymic policy was characterized by non-Germanisation of already existing Galician toponyms. The Habsburg toponymic heritage is therefore of double nature: 1) forms of toponyms popularized by Austro-Hungarian maps (especially by Spezialkarte) influenced a wide toponymic usus as well as the toponymy of the later maps (especially interwar-Polish military maps) – these popularized forms may have differed from the names used by the local communities, which could have been caused by a surveyor’s mistake; 2) the topographic and cartographic materials produced by the Austro-Hungarian institutions are a valuable source for toponomastic research. In the paper, the Austro-Hungarian and interwar-Polish topographic manuals are analysed. These documents defined the way a surveyor had to collect and process geographical names. The examples and possible causes of some Polonized forms occurring in Spezialkarte are discussed. Next, the influence of the Austrian maps on the toponymy of Polish maps is explained. Finally, hilarious examples of cartographic name-copying are given.

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Es ist nicht alles Weiß, was so zu sein scheint

Bemerkungen zur Interpretation einiger ungarischer und kroatischer Örtlichkeitsnamen

Not all is White that Looks White: Remarks on the Interpretation of Some Hungarian and Croatian Place-Names

Studia Slavica
Author:
István Vig

Adjektive, die Farben bezeichnen, kommen häufig in Örtlichkeitsnamen vieler Sprachen vor. Unter ihnen befindet sich auch das Adjektiv weiß. Die Motivation und Bedeutung des Farbadjektivs weiß in der Namensgebung einiger Örtlichkeitsnamen bilden den Gegenstand dieser Untersuchung. Der vorliegende Aufsatz ist in zwei Teile gegliedert. Im ersten Teil wird den Beweggründen für die Wahl des Adjektivs weiß in einigen ungarischen, kroatischen und serbischen Örtlichkeitsnamen nachgegangen. Im zweiten Teil werden einige kroatische Ortsnamen behandelt, in denen eine Komponente nur scheinbar die Bedeutung ‘weiß’ hat. In der Wirklichkeit haben die Denotate dieser Örtlichkeitsnamen keine weiße Farbe.

Zur ersten Gruppe gehören die ungarischen Örtlichkeitsnamen Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, das kroatische Biograd na moru und das serbische (und auch kroatische) Beograd. Sie sind Zusammensetzungen aus fehér, bio- / beo- ‘weiß’ + vár, grad ‘Burg’. Nach allgemeiner Meinung der Fachliteratur bezieht sich das Adjektiv weiß auf die weiße oder helle Farbe der Steine der Burgen.

In der ungarischen Sprachwissenschaft wurde auch erforscht, wie alt das Kompositum fehérvár sein könnte. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Magyaren schon drei Burgen bzw. befestigte Städte kannten, bevor sie sich am Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts im Karpatenbecken niederließen.

Zwei Örtlichkeitsnamen davon befanden sich auf chasarischem Gebiet, Sarïγsïn und Šarkel / Sarkel. Der zweite Örtlichkeitsname hat die Bedeutung ‘hell, gelb, bleich, weiß’. Der erste ist ein Kompositum von sarï, sarïγ ‘weiß’ + kil / käl ‘Haus’. Nach der bisherigen Erklärung hätte die Komponente sarï, sarïγ eine Beziehung zur weißen Farbe der Festung. Diese Meinung beruht auf der fehlerhaften Interpretation der schriftlichen Quelle. Erstens: die Mauern der Burg wurden aus roten Ziegeln gebaut. Zweitens: die jüngsten turkologischen Forschungsergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass die Farbe Weiß eine symbolische Bedeutung hatte. Sie ist die symbolische Farbe von Burgen und Gebäuden, die auf ein gehobenes und großes Prestige hindeuten.

Beim dritten Beispiel handelt es sich um den Namen einer Festung am Dnister-Liman, der in verschiedenen Sprachen wiedergegeben wird. Hier wird die Motivation der Komponente weiß durch die hellgraue Mauer der Festung bestätigt.

Fazit. Die Existenz des Namens fehérvár war schon in der urmagyarischen Periode der ungarischen Sprache möglich. Man kann nicht entscheiden, wie er entstand: als Lehnübersetzung oder aufgrund einer gene-rellen Anschauung.

Unter den analysierten kroatischen Örtlichkeitsnamen befinden sich Städtenamen und geographische Namen. Die Stadt Pélmonostor gehörte bis 1918 zu Ungarn. Der kroatische Name ist eine behördlich festgelegte Bezeichnung. Die Komponente monostor wurde übersetzt und der Eigenname Pél wurde durch das ähnlich lautende Adjektiv beli ‘weiß’ ersetzt. Das Adjektiv hat keinen Zusammenhang mit Pél. Der Stadtname Bjelovar ist ungarischer Herkunft (< Bélavár). Der Eigenname Béla wurde volksetymologisch als kroatisch bijel, bijela ‘weiß’ interpretiert und ersetzt. Bei den geographischen Namen Rt (‘Kap’) Bela und Uvala (‘Bucht’) Bela ist die Komponente Bela nicht als Adjektiv, sondern als ein italienischer Familienname zu interpretieren.

Adjectives that denote colours are common in toponyms in many languages. Among them we can also find the adjective white. The motivation and meaning of the colour white in the naming of some place-names form the subject of this study. The present paper is divided into two parts. The first part explores the motivations for choosing the adjective white in some Hungarian, Croatian, and Serbian place-names. The second part deals with some Croatian place-names in which a component only seems to have the meaning ‘white’. In reality, the denotates of these toponyms have no white colour.

The first group includes the Hungarian toponyms Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, the Croatian Biograd na moru, and the Serbian (and also Croatian) Beograd. They are compositions of fehér, bio- / beo- ‘white’ + vár, grad ‘castle’. According to the general opinion of the literature on the subject, the adjective white refers to the white or light colour of the stones of the castles.

Hungarian linguists have also researched how old the composite fehérvár could be. It was found that the Magyars already knew three castles or fortified cities before they settled in the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century.

Two of these place-names were located on Khazar territory, Sarïγsïn and Šarkel / Sarkel. The second place-name has the meaning ‘light, yellow, pale, white’. The first is a composition of sarï, sarïγ ‘white’ + kil / käl ‘house’. According to the previous explanation, the component sarï, sarïγ could be related to the white colour of the fortress. This opinion is based on the erroneous interpretation of the written source. First, the walls of the castle were built of red bricks. Second, recent Turkological research suggests that the colour white had a symbolic meaning. It is the symbolic colour of castles and buildings that indicate an upscale and great prestige.

The third example is the name of a fortress on the Dniester Liman, which is reproduced in different languages. Here the motivation of the component white is confirmed by the light gray wall of the fortress.

Conclusions. The existence of the name fehérvár was already possible in Proto-Hungarian. One cannot decide how it was created: as a loan translation or on the basis of a general view.

Among the analyzed Croatian toponyms are city names and geographical names. The town of Pélmonostor belonged to Hungary until 1918. Its Croatian name is an officially defined designation. The component monostor was translated and the proper name Pél was replaced by the similar adjective beli ‘white’. The adjective has no connection with Pél. The city name Bjelovar is of Hungarian origin (< Bélavár). The proper name Béla was folk-etymologically interpreted and replaced by Croatian bijel, bijela ‘white’. In the case of the geographical names Rt (‘Cape’) Bela and Uvala (‘Bay’) Bela, the component Bela is not to be interpreted as an adjective but as an Italian surname.

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-Jallad , Ahmad , Robert Daniel and Omar Al-Ghul 2013 . ‘ The Arabic toponyms and oikonyms in 17 .’ In: Koenen , Ludwig , Jorma Kaimio , Maarit Kaimio and Daniel Robert (eds.) The Petra Papyri II . Amman : American Center of Oriental

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compatible with such a brief period of direct Islamic control, we encounter a series of phenomena that suggest a surprisingly profound Islamic semantic influence on Romance toponyms. Roger Wright talked about a series of what seem to be North African Latin

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Summary

One of the basic features of the itineraries is the presence of toponyms. In the particular case of the Christian itineraries, toponyms operate in two different levels: in the places of the biblical past that is meant to be recalled in the peregrination itself and in the places “truly” visited. This fact gives toponyms a very interesting “diversity”, not only from a cultural standpoint, but also because of all kinds of linguistic facts: phonetic, morphologic, syntactic, etc. These linguistic facts reflect the situation and evolution of late Latin, an aspect of which I am going to focus on the syntactic level.

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The Mongolic term khaan (‘king’), for which there is full correspondence, semantic and phonological, in sixteenth century Portuguese cão, is used as a starting-point to identify the graphemes that correspond to several Mongolic consonants in place names transcribed in the chapters related to the Tartars in Fernão Mendes Pinto’s Peregrinação (1614). With the deduced rules of pronunciation at hand, it is possible to establish new pairs of lexical correspondences and solve a brief lexicon extracted from the list of Tartar toponyms.

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Summary

Kolozsvár, Klausenburg or Cluj-Napoca? Toponymic terminology and the issue of non-uniform use of geographical names: a focus on the European historical and cultural tradition. This paper aims to explore the issue of non-uniform use of geographical names, with a focus on the European historical and cultural tradition. The analysis refers to toponyms drawn from the history of four European countries: Germany, Romania, Poland and Italy. It reveals the importance of contrasting the different toponyms used for the same place. A place-name form is not merely a variant, but has a definite pragmatic content, which can best be analysed in light of the interdisciplinary approach offered by Toponymy. Toponymy allows us to unveil Europe's partially unexplored historical and Christian roots. The analysis contributes to advancing the study of toponyms from a broader vantage point. It highlights the significance of the didactic experience in introducing young generations to the European heritage of toponyms. Further studies may explore this cultural treasure across different European languages.

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Late Latin toponyms as local adverbs are generally used in the ablative instead of the accusative and the locative. Nevertheless there are some lesser groups in the itineraries that contain locatives and accusatives. The Pannonian data show that they must be local phenomena, occurring only in SE Pannonia, forming a clear conservative zone until the 5th century. It is uncertain when this region was separated from the whole, yet this seems to have occurred after the period Ptolemy had collected his data from.

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In the Yenisei inscriptions, as in Old-Turkic inscriptions in general, a great number of place names occur. However, Old-Turkic toponyms have not been studied satisfactorily. In this article emphasis has been laid on the word qatun mentioned in the inscriptions of Uyuk-Turan (E 3), Aldıı-Bel I (E 12), Aldıı-Bel II (E 72) and Novosyolovo (E 144). Having dealt with the meanings attributed to this word by previous researchers, it has been concluded that qatun in these inscriptions does not mean ‘the wife of the khan’ or ‘woman’, as hitherto supposed, but it refers to the river Katun. Furthermore, the name tarlay, which is often used together with qatun, denotes the river Tarlak.

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This paper aims at giving an overview of the main traditional tendencies and new trends in historical Slavic linguistics in Hungary. Traditionally, since the end of the 19th century, the main goal of investigations has been the interpretation of the Slavic linguistic and cultural influence on the Hungarian language and culture, having continuously been present in the Carpathian basin for more than a thousand year. The language contacts resulted in a vast number of lexical borrowings, calques, and toponyms of Slavic origin in Hungarian, and also in the appearance of Church Slavonic written sources of local redaction. The author describes the process of the methodological progress in the research of these areas and presents the most important results. Since the 1990’s, new trends have emerged in historical Slavic linguistics in Hungary that can be identified as the application of methods and frameworks of areal and theoretical (cognitive and generative) linguistics, which makes the renewal of this discipline possible.

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