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The aim of this research was to assess the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of lipophilic (Lextr) and hydrophilic (Hextr) tomato extracts using in vitro chemical tests and cell-based assays, focusing on possible synergistic actions between tomato antioxidants. Both Hextr and Lextr were HPLC analysed for their carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid contents. For the evaluation of TAA, extracts were assayed alone or in combination using in vitro chemical tests (TEAC, FRAP) and cell-based (CAA) assays using human hepatoma (HepG2) and human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) cells. The only carotenoid detected in Lextr was lycopene, while a mixture of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin) was identified in Hextr. Ascorbic acid was not found either in Hextr or in Lextr. Upon extract combination (1:1, v/v), the FRAP assay revealed additive action between Lextr and Hextr, whilst a slight synergistic action was observed in TAA as measured by the TEAC assay. Synergistic action was better revealed when TAA was analysed using either U937 or HepG2 cells. This could be explained by the presence of a multiphase media (cell membrane and extra- and intracellular media) that might facilitate the distribution and interaction of antioxidants with different polarities and different mechanisms of action.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: G. Rácz, M. Alam, Ch. Arekatte, K. Albert, N. Papp, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, P. Russo, M. DiMatteo, and Gy. Vatai

Different osmotic agents (OA), such as potassium acetate (CH3COOK), potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), have been examined as alternatives to the traditionally used calcium chloride (CaCl2) for osmotic distillation concentrating of clarified and pre-concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juice. Comparison of the process performances based on the permeate fluxes has been carried out. Regarding the permeate flux results, simplified estimation of the overall mass transfer coefficient of the most effective osmotic agent and the reference (CaCl2) solution has been also performed. Furthermore, analytical methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA) and total polyphenolic content (TPC) using spectrophotometric assays have been also carried out to evaluate the effect of the osmotic distillation on the valuable compounds content of concentrated sour cherry juice. CH3COOK was found to be the most effective, resulted more than 25% higher permeate flux during the sour cherry juice concentration. K2CO3 and NH4NO3 were less effective. The simplified mass transfer estimation showed that the CH3COOK is more effective only at near saturated concentrations compared to the CaCl2. Regarding the TAA and TPC contents, a significant loss was found in case of all OAs during the concentration procedures.

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The discovery of the implication of free radicals in the etiology of many diseases has led to increased interest in functional food that contain many different dietary phytonutrients, including antioxidants. One of the most important issues in the natural antioxidants analysis is determination of their antioxidant activity. The total antioxidant activity of some natural and commercial juices has been evaluated using a new TLC method that involves reaction between DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and the antioxidants from juices. The antioxidant activity, expressed in vitamin C units, was determined on the basis of a calibration plot, peak area being a function of vitamin C concentration.

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In this study, six commercial cherry tomato cultivars were analysed for variations in biochemical and technological parameters. Significant differences were observed among cultivars with respect to their technological and functional quality attributes. About 2.48-fold variation in titratable acidity, 2.47-fold variation in total phenolics, 4.13-fold variation in total carotenoid and 7.68-fold variation in lycopene contents were recorded. The total antioxidant activity and respiration rate were also found to vary about 1.85-fold and 1.48-fold, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were found in the Cherry tomato hybrid no.1 followed by Pusa cherry tomato-1. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that Cherry tomato hybrid no. 1, Pusa cherry tomato-1, and Nagmoti cultivars were abundantly rich in phytochemical and bioactive compounds.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: E. Tománková, J. Balík, I. Soural, P. Bednář, and B. Papoušková

This study presents findings from comparing the properties of anthocyanin pigments: i. malvidin-3-glucoside (Mal-3-G), the most significant anthocyanin present in young red wine; ii. Vitisin A (5-carboxypyranomalvidin-3-glucoside), a major product from a reaction induced in red wine between Mal-3-G and pyruvic acid during its ageing. These pigments were determined and compared to the absorption spectrum in 200–770 nm at various pH values, such results including the ability of cation Al3+ to change the values of absorbance. Changes in the colour parameters L* a* b* were determined in the CIELAB colour space of Mal-3-G and Vitisin A in relation to pH and the addition of AlCl3. Both coloured compounds were investigated for their resistance to discoloration by sulphur dioxide. Total antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods (FRAP, DPPH), and the values were compared to other phenols.

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Aerobic rice offers an attractive alternative approach over transplanting system as it consumes less water with low labour expenses. Flag leaf of six rice cultivars, viz. PR 120, PR 115, PR 116, Feng Ai Zan, PAU 201 and Punjab Mehak 1 was analysed for antioxidant defence mechanism and polyamine catabolism under the aerobic and the transplanting conditions. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities increased gradually from tillering to anthesis stage and then declined towards maturity stage under both planting conditions. Apparently, contents of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, proline and polyamines (PAs) also revealed similar trend. The aerobic condition elevated activities of PAO, SOD as well as contents of PAs, lipid peroxide and H2O2 whereas the transplanting condition had higher levels of APX, GPX, CAT and total antioxidant activities and contents of ascorbate, α-tocopherol and proline. Cultivars Feng Ai Zan, PR 115 and PR 120 exhibited superior tolerance over other cultivars by accumulating higher contents of PAs with increasing levels of PAO and SOD activities under the aerobic condition. However, under the transplanting condition PR 116 and PAU 201 showed higher activities of antioxidative enzymes with decreasing contents of lipid peroxide and H2O2. We infer that under the aerobic condition, enhancement of PAs and PAO activity enabled rice cultivars to tolerate oxidative stress, while under the transplanting condition, antioxidative defence system with decreasing of lipid peroxide content was closely associated with the protection of flag leaf by maintaining membrane integrity. In crux, results indicated that H2O2 metabolic machinery was strongly up-regulated especially at the anthesis stage.

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. 5. Keser , S. , Celik , S. , Turkoglu , S. , Yilmaz, Ö., Turkoglu , I. ( 2012 ) Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity of hawthorn . Chem. J. 2 , 9 – 12

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281 287 Benzie, I.F. & Strain, J.J. (1999): Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and

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comparison of carotenoid content and total antioxidant activity in catsup from several commercial sources in the United States. J. Agric. Fd Chem. , 52 , 8017–8020. Chapman M.H. A

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59 63 Benzie, I. E. F., Strain, J. J. (1999) Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of the total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version

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