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The main target of this study was to measure the influence of sumac juice drink on muscle indices and pain during an acute, intense exercise for 30 days. Forty healthy volunteers (15–25 years) were involved in aerobic exercise program for 4 weeks. Participants ingested sumac juice or placebo drink twice daily for 30 days. All participants were subjected for the evaluation of pain and estimation of serum: creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin I, hydroxyproline (hyp), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and in vitro antioxidant activity of sumac juice using pre-validated visual analog scale, colorimetric and immunoassays. The participants of both groups, placebo and sumac, showed an increment in pain scores both during exercise and post-exercise intervals. However, the sumac juice group showed a significant smaller increase in the pain scores compared to the placebo group. Participants in the sumac juice group were more willing to use the drink in the future. They achieved a higher satisfaction of sumac juice in ameliorating and the reduction of pain. Also, the sumac group showed a significant enhancement in the level of CK, LDH, troponin I, hyp, along with significant increase in serum (TAC) compared to the placebo group. The protective activity of muscle may relate to the antioxidant activity of phenolic component(s) in sumac juice as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (87.9%) and β-carotene–linoleic acid (68.7%) assays. These data suggest that oral administration of sumac juice may have a beneficial effect on muscle performance among athletes.

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. Table 1. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in mM Trolox of various phenols at 10 min and 48 h Phenols

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., P. cerasifera Ehrh., and P. spinosa L.). The study was conducted in Van locality (Turkey) which has a rich biological diversity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), phenolic compound, organic acid, and vitamin C contents were identified in the

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metallothioneins have been used for decades for mentoring the potency of the antioxidant defense system. Recently, a new test to measure the total antioxidant status was introduced, which has been designated as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) [13] . The major

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acid reactive substances (TBARS) method ( 53 ). Moreover, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured according to a published method ( 20 ). The results are expressed as trolox equivalents per gram wet tissue weight. The levels of glutathione (GSH

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Milled rice from nine aromatic cultivars was evaluated for physicochemical, cooking, and antioxidant properties. Physical parameters measured were milling outrun, head rice yield (HRY), and appearance (size and shape). Cooking time, water uptake ratio and elongation ratio were determined to study their cooking quality. Chemical parameters included were amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), gel consistency (GC) and alkali spreading value (ASV). Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used to study their antioxidant activity. This study revealed all rice cultivars, except Basmoti-370 and Gopalbhog, showed HRY. Besides, all rice cultivars displayed high protein content. Significant variations (P<0.05) were found in TPC and the antioxidant activities of the rice cultivars. The correlation coefficient between the TPC and the antioxidant activities was strong and statistically significant (P<0.05).

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It is known that inflammatory organ damages due to various agents, such as microorganisms including mycoplasmas, lead to oxidative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as an antimicrobial agent, and arginase decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. There are very few studies on arginase activity, NO level and oxidative stress status in mycoplasmal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte arginase activity, plasma NO level and oxidative stress status in sheep with contagious agalactia. The study material consisted of 10 healthy sheep and 14 sheep with contagious agalactia characterised by mastitis, arthritis and keratoconjunctivitis. Erythrocyte arginase activity, plasma NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant capacity (TOC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were measured. Significant decreases in erythrocyte arginase activity and plasma TAC level (P < 0.001), and significant increases in plasma NO, MDA and TOC levels (P < 0.001) were found in the diseased sheep as compared with the healthy animals. This study suggests that contagious agalactia may cause oxidative stress due to increased plasma MDA and TOC levels and decreased plasma TAC levels, and that the decrease in erythrocyte arginase activity and increase in plasma NO level may contribute to the elimination of mycoplasmal agents causing contagious agalactia.

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Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment.

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Erythropoietin (EPO), a key hormone involved in red blood cell formation has been recently acknowledged for its pleiotropic actions and protective role in ageing and various pathological conditions concurrent with oxidative stress, vascular diseases and metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between circulating erythropoietin levels and oxidative stress biomarkers, in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The study was carried out in 67 subjects with T2DM (69 ± 5 years; n = 37) without anemia, and aged-matched controls (70 ± 6 years; n = 30). EPO serum levels, erythrocyte susceptibility to lipid peroxidation (ESP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. Lower EPO levels (p < 0.01) and higher ESP values (p < 0.001) were found in T2DM group, compared to healthy subjects. EPO levels showed significant negative associations with ESP, both in T2DM subjects (r = −0.565; p < 0.001) and in all study population (r = –0,600; p < 0,001; n = 67). In conclusion, we provide new data regarding the cytoprotective effect of EPO exerted at systemic level on erythrocyte membrane, in the particular state of impaired glucose metabolism associated with oxidative stress, in the elderly.

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Physiology International
Authors:
D. Gerszi
,
Á. Penyige
,
Z. Mezei
,
B. Sárai-Szabó
,
R. Benkő
,
B. Bányai
,
C. Demendi
,
E. Ujvári
,
S. Várbíró
, and
E.M. Horváth

(Biomedica, Wien, Austria). Plasma total antioxidant capacity was measured from plasma samples by a commercially available assay kit (OxiSelect™ Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) Assay Kit, Cell Biolabs Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Nitrative stress was

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