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The paper investigates Arendt’s criticism of human rights, taking as a point of departure her analysis of totalitarianism. In analyzing the political catastrophe of the 20th century, she describes, among others, the situation of stateless-people, i.e., the refugees of the 1930s and 1940s, who had lost any citizenship. I delineate her theory of total domination and totalitarianism, and I put her considerations on human rights in this context. The paper discusses Arendt’s basic idea that human rights make no sense without an instance that is able and willing to defend those rights.

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My intention is to reexamine some of the documents of the Hungarian revolution that contain statements by Hungarian writers. On October 26 a two-page pamphlet appeared. Its title - 'Immovably' - referred to Vörösmarty's 'Appeal'. The poems by István Sinka and Ferenc Jankovich, as well as the short essay by the Transylvanian-born author Áron Tamási represented the values of the 'Populist' movement of the interwar period. The texts of the November issue of 'Literary Newsletter' were by a wider range of writers. While most of the poems had been composed in the early 1950s, including 'One Sentence on Tyranny' by Gyula Illyés and 'The Dictator' by Lajos Kassák, the essays by Tibor Déry, László Németh, and Lőrinc Szabó were inspired by the uprising. The third document I wish to examine is the collective statement issued by the Writers' Association on December 28th. Since my paper will focus not on aesthetic values but on political views, I will not exclude texts by mediocre writers. The question I wish to ask is whether any difference can be seen between the positions taken by former communists and those who expressed anti-communist views before 1945.

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In an atheist society, such as the communist one, all forms of the sacred were anathematized and fiercly sanctioned. Nevertheless, despite these ideological barriers, important articles and volumes of Byzantine — and sometimes Gregorian — musicological research were published in totalitarian Romania. Numerous Romanian scholars participated at international congresses and symposia, thus benefiting of scholarships and research stages not only in the socialist states, but also in places regarded as ‘affected by viruses,’ such as the USA or the libraries on Mount Athos (Greece). This article discusses the mechanisms through which the research on religious music in Romania managed to avoid ideological censorship, the forms of camouflage and dissimulation of musicological information with religious subject that managed to integrate and even impose over the aesthetic visions of the Party. The article also refers to cultural politics enthusiastically supporting research and valuing the heritage of ancient music as a fundamental source for composers and their creations dedicated to the masses.

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-1945). (1904-1944). Gyuri Köves, the hero of the novel, was innocently convicted, exactly as Josef K was in The Trial by Kafka. Totalitarianism degrades human beings into faceless and fateless objects, where victims come to regard

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’Kane, R. H. T. (2004): Paths to Democracy. Revolution and Totalitarianism . Routledge. Przeworski, A. (1995): Sustainable Democracy . Cambridge University Press. Rupnik, J. (2001): The

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International Congress of Slavists. Ljubljana, 15–21 August 2003 . (Slavica Lundensia Supplementa 2.) Lund, 2003. 145–156. Witt 2011 = Witt S. Between the Lines: Totalitarianism and Translation in the USSR. In: Baer B. J. (ed

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Post-Communism 2008 55 7 25 Killingsworth, Matt (2010) ’Lustration after Totalitarianism

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country. That is why we know his name in this half of Europe. We can also get to know Hannah Arendt, although her works only came to us after 1990. She and her thoughts on the essential similarities of fascist and communist totalitarianism – albeit

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. , The Origins of Totalitarianism (George Allen and Unwin 1967 ). Atatürk , M. K. , The Great Speech (Atatürk Arastirma Merkezi 2005

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A blossoming under totalitarianism Science 264 5163 1347 – 1349 . Gorodnikova , N. 1999

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