Two widely read Chinese novels of the past 20 years—Gao Xingjian’s Soul Mountain (1990) and Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem (2004)—echo Henry David Thoreau’s proclamation (in his essay “Walking”) that “in Wildness is the preservation of the world.”
These texts, which reveal their origins in journals, present highly personal quests for what remains of the wild in China;
turning their backs on Beijing, the authors search for validation of a belief, expressed by Thoreau and other environmental
writers within a Romantic tradition, that a people in close contact with the wild maintain a strength, earthiness and vitality
not found in urban cultures; and that close contact with the wild, especially with wild animals, has a spiritual dimension.
These compelling Chinese quests yield different results, inevitably depart from Thoreau’s 19th-century optimism, and make
complementary statements on what modern China risks losing as it progressively, and in the name of “progress,” eliminates
Erhard Eylmann founder of Ethnology in Australia
. Life and history of Erhard Eylmann (1860–1926) and his travels and studies in Australia, includes listing by tribe of his anthropological work — Naryngeri, Diäri, Lurritja, Aranda, etc. during his fieldwork 1896–1900 and later. He gives details of the natives, e.g. physical appearance, anthropometry, language-polysyllabic — details of grammar, sign language — meanings — smoke signals, details of ritual and non-ritual mutilations, tooth avulsion, medicine means, tongue operation, sex rituals and behaviour, social organisation, population density, totemism, age grouping, etc. Later Eylmann spent a long study on begging in South Australia and some studies on firemaking. In 1908 he published his fundamental book on Australian anthropology “The Natives on the Colony of South Australia” (in German). There is no doubt that Eylmann is a singular scientist such as Gillen and Spencer.
During the last decade or so, the literary writings that portray the lives of the wolves and their relationship with the humans
sprouted and prospered in China. These wolf writings all give very vivid and appealing portraits of wolves, their wild existence,
their character, their relationship with men, and their role in the ecosystem. They have shaped our understanding of and attitudes
towards animals and nature, which is of great value to the ongoing building of ecological civilization in China as well as
in the world. In general, the Chinese wolf literature has inevitably been influenced and inspired by the long and rich traditions
of the wolf myths and literature in the West, particularly those works of Jack London, Rudyard Kipling and other Western writers
since the end of the 19th century. With due attention paid to the influence of the Western wolf literature, this essay will
mainly analyze the three most important Chinese wolf novels—The Wolf Child, Remembering Wolves and The Wolf Totem, both separately and with reference to one another. It argues that the representations of wolves in them subvert the stereotypical
hostile images of wolf in traditional Chinese culture, bring about fresh reflections on the cultural and spiritual symptoms
of (post)modernity and globalization, and finally lead to a growing ecological consciousness and the call for balance between
humans and nonhumans.
megemlíthetjük még Christoph Starnberger portréját 1609-ből, egy Mária-képet 1610-ből, egy Pietàt, a hercegi rezidencia egyik termébe festett képeket 1612-ből, egy csendéletet ábrázoló táblaképet 1615-ből (“mit totem Federwild und Weintrauben”), a hercegnő
Berechtigung von der Neurasthenie einen bestimmten Symptomkomplex als „Angstneurose” abzutreten. In
Gesammelte Werke 1.
(1977, 5. Auflage) 316–342. Imago, London
Totem és tabu.