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Ancient World. London, Methuen & Co., 1958. Frazer, James George: Totemism. Edinburgh, Adam & Charles Black, 1887. Frazer, James George: The Golden Bough. I–II. New York

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Abstract  

Two widely read Chinese novels of the past 20 years—Gao Xingjian’s Soul Mountain (1990) and Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem (2004)—echo Henry David Thoreau’s proclamation (in his essay “Walking”) that “in Wildness is the preservation of the world.” These texts, which reveal their origins in journals, present highly personal quests for what remains of the wild in China; turning their backs on Beijing, the authors search for validation of a belief, expressed by Thoreau and other environmental writers within a Romantic tradition, that a people in close contact with the wild maintain a strength, earthiness and vitality not found in urban cultures; and that close contact with the wild, especially with wild animals, has a spiritual dimension. These compelling Chinese quests yield different results, inevitably depart from Thoreau’s 19th-century optimism, and make complementary statements on what modern China risks losing as it progressively, and in the name of “progress,” eliminates the wild.

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Erhard Eylmann founder of Ethnology in Australia . Life and history of Erhard Eylmann (1860–1926) and his travels and studies in Australia, includes listing by tribe of his anthropological work — Naryngeri, Diäri, Lurritja, Aranda, etc. during his fieldwork 1896–1900 and later. He gives details of the natives, e.g. physical appearance, anthropometry, language-polysyllabic — details of grammar, sign language — meanings — smoke signals, details of ritual and non-ritual mutilations, tooth avulsion, medicine means, tongue operation, sex rituals and behaviour, social organisation, population density, totemism, age grouping, etc. Later Eylmann spent a long study on begging in South Australia and some studies on firemaking. In 1908 he published his fundamental book on Australian anthropology “The Natives on the Colony of South Australia” (in German). There is no doubt that Eylmann is a singular scientist such as Gillen and Spencer.

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Abstract  

During the last decade or so, the literary writings that portray the lives of the wolves and their relationship with the humans sprouted and prospered in China. These wolf writings all give very vivid and appealing portraits of wolves, their wild existence, their character, their relationship with men, and their role in the ecosystem. They have shaped our understanding of and attitudes towards animals and nature, which is of great value to the ongoing building of ecological civilization in China as well as in the world. In general, the Chinese wolf literature has inevitably been influenced and inspired by the long and rich traditions of the wolf myths and literature in the West, particularly those works of Jack London, Rudyard Kipling and other Western writers since the end of the 19th century. With due attention paid to the influence of the Western wolf literature, this essay will mainly analyze the three most important Chinese wolf novels—The Wolf Child, Remembering Wolves and The Wolf Totem, both separately and with reference to one another. It argues that the representations of wolves in them subvert the stereotypical hostile images of wolf in traditional Chinese culture, bring about fresh reflections on the cultural and spiritual symptoms of (post)modernity and globalization, and finally lead to a growing ecological consciousness and the call for balance between humans and nonhumans.

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Personality and Social Psychology 5 432 443 Freud, S. (1955) Totem and taboo. In Strachey, J. (ed. and transl

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Freud, S. (1955) ‘Totem and Tabu’ in J. Strachey, ed. and trans., The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 13. (Hogarth: London) 1

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. Mitchell , W. J. T. : Totemism, Fetishism, Idolatry . in: What Do Pictures Want? The Lives and Loves of Images . Chicago, London : The University of Chicago Press , 2005 , pp. 188 – 189 . 18

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. Európa Kiadó, Budapest Mózes, az ember és az egyistenhit Freud, S. (1990) Totem és tabu. Göncöl Kiadó, Budapest

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megemlíthetjük még Christoph Starnberger portréját 1609-ből, egy Mária-képet 1610-ből, egy Pietàt, a hercegi rezidencia egyik termébe festett képeket 1612-ből, egy csendéletet ábrázoló táblaképet 1615-ből (“mit totem Federwild und Weintrauben”), a hercegnő

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Berechtigung von der Neurasthenie einen bestimmten Symptomkomplex als „Angstneurose” abzutreten. In Gesammelte Werke 1. (1977, 5. Auflage) 316–342. Imago, London Freud, S.) (1913/1990 Totem és tabu. Göncöl

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