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INTRODUCTION Traditional ecological knowledge related to the natural flora is an important aspect of environmental knowledge in communities that directly depend on natural resources and ecosystem services. Ecosystem services necessitate a knowledge

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common species knowledge (Ulicsni et al. 2016, 2019). In some cases, traditional ecological knowledge is rather conservative: there are many mechanisms in its operation that slow down the pace of change (Hewlett – Cavalli-Sforza 1986), and it typically

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All over the world, rural communities developed mainly stable and sustainable, traditional (extensive) land use systems to manage natural resources. Resource management and related traditional ecological knowledge based on understanding of the functioning of the ecosystem help local communities to maintain important resources, like forests. Forest plays an important socio-economic role in the life of rural communities. Wood is one of the most elemental raw materials used in households, but its non-timber benefits play just as important a role.

We examined sustainable use of forests in a Csángó community in Gyimes region (Eastern Carpathians, Romania), providing insights into attitudes within folk forestry towards natural resources, driving forces, and changes in human relations with the forest.

Wood as a raw material is a resource that largely determines the daily life of the Csángó community, while non-timber products (e.g., forest grazing, forest fruits, herbs) play a complementary, yet important role in Gyimes life. The survey of forest flora and vegetation confirms that Gyimes farmers are familiar with the plant species that reach significant coverage in the canopy, shrub and herbaceous layers, they are well versed in the forest types occurring in the landscape, their dynamics, their most characteristic stages in the succession after felling. Overuse is an undisputed and acknowledged part of the forest-management, threatens social-ecological system-flexibility. As long as natural systems are able to renew themselves (forests can regenerate), there is chance for the further use of this important resource and in a broader context there is chance for the survival of the local community as well.

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sustainability, traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) Nowadays, humanity is facing and coping with critical environmental problems. The common goal is to produce health-centred, quality-oriented, and

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. Berkes , Fikret 1999 Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management . Philadelphia : Taylor & Francis . Berlin , Brendt 1992 Ethnobiological Classification. Principles of Categorisation of Plants and Animals in

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Based on ethnographic and botanical sources as well as observations between 2012 and 2015, we have data about the sale of 130 species of wild plants in the markets of Hungary’s fifth largest city. Most species, 98 of them, were sold as bouquets or wreaths, as ornamental plants. Sources reported sales of 67 wildflowers in the past, while between 2012–2015 they offered a total of 57 species in ornamental bouquets at the market but only 23 of the species sold in the past were among them. The main reason for changes in the wildflower species is that several species have become protected and hence their sale prohibited. Based on the available data, only 30 species of herbs and edible plants gathered in the wild were sold – 10 species as wild vegetables, 6 species as flowers, and 18 species as fruits. Today, of the edible wild species, mostly wild fruits and wild onions are available on a regular basis. Because the sale of medicinal plants became regulated very early on, their sale in the markets is not common, available mostly through wholesalers and already processed. Even today it is mostly edible herbs that are available in the market. During the 4 years of observation, they also sold 38 mushroom species in the markets of Pécs as forest products.

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natural sciences to study land use and traditional ecological knowledge in peripheral village communities in the Carpathian Basin. One of the field sites targeted by this research group is the Hungarian–Slovenian border area. Anthropological (or rather

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. Conservation: biological and cultural challenges Traditional ecological knowledge and the Global North Promising psychedelic (and otherwise) therapies have been developed and espoused by aboriginal peoples across the globe for millennia ( McKenna, 2018 ). It

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.sajb.2017.05.007 Montanari , B . ( 2013 ): The future of agriculture in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco: the need to integrate traditional ecological knowledge . – In: Mann , S . (ed.): The future of mountain agriculture . Springer Geography

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