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Derynck R, Roberts A, Winkler ME: Human transforming growth factor - α, precursor structure and expression in E. coli. Cell. 38, 287-297 (1984) Human transforming growth factor - α, precursor structure and expression in E. coli

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predictor of fibrosis change in hepatitis C J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 18 253 – 257 . [21]. D. R. Nelson R. P. Gonzales-Peralata K. Quian 1997 Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in chronic hepatitis C J. Viral Hepat. 4 29 – 35

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., Sanjabi, S., et al.: Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses. Annu. Rev. Immunol., 2006, 24, 99–146. 4 Friedman, S. L.: The cellular

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., Feitelson, M. A.: Hepatitis B virus X antigen promotes transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) activity by up-regulation of TGF-beta1 and down-regulation of α2-macroglobulin. J. Gen. Virol., 2004, 85 (2), 275

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Awad, M. R., El-Gamel, A., Hasleton, P., Turner, D. M., Sinnott, P. J., Hutchinson, I. V.: Genotypic variation in the transforming growth factor-betal gene: association with transforming growth factor

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Elena Nikolaevna Filatova, Nikolay Aleksandrovich Sakharnov, Dmitry Igorevich Knyazev, and Oleg Vladimirovich Utkin

cancers, such as B-cell, T-cell, and NK-cell lymphomas [ 1 ]. Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFB1) is a multifunctional polypeptide that plays a critical role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth [ 2 ]. It induces

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-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)) and to well-established protective factors (α-Klotho protein, fetuin-A, vitamin D 3 ) to reveal their contribution to the cardiovascular compromise

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A csontvelőből származó mesenchymalis őssejtek pluripotensek, s képesek porc, csont, valamint adiposus és ínsejtekké differenciálódni. Ezen mesenchymalis progenitor sejteket stromasejteknek vagy mesenchymalis őssejteknek nevezik. A csontvelőben két fő sejttípus van: haematopoeticus sejt és stromasejt. Mesenchymalis őssejtek kis beavatkozással nyerhetők a csontvelőből, majd sejtkultúrában szaporíthatóak. Differenciálódásuk bioaktív molekulákkal, specifikus növekedési faktorokkal segíthető elő. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) család tagjai proteinek, közülük a bone morphogenetic proteinek (BMP) a legfontosabb faktorok, amelyek elősegítik a mesenchymalis őssejtek porc- és csontszövetté történő differenciálódását. Kevésbé ismert még ezen sejteknek a tenogenesisben való szerepe, de már vannak biztató adatok e téren is. A mesenchymalis őssejteknek és növekedési faktoroknak a sérült szövetekbe való juttatásra vivő vázanyagra (carrier, scaffold) van szükség. Mesenchymalis őssejtek használhatók fel génterápiára és a tissue engineering alkalmazására. A szerzők jelen munkájukban áttekintik a mesenchymalis őssejtek, biomolekulák és növekedési faktorok szövetpótlás céljából történő használatával foglalkozó kísérletes vizsgálatok eddigi eredményeit és ismertetik a klinikai alkalmazás lehetőségeit.

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Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.

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Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells are known as multipotent and exhibit the potential for differentiation into different cells/tissue lineages, including cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, tendon, ligament. These pluripotent mesenchymal progenitor cells are denoted as stromal or mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow contains two main cell types: hematopoetic cells and stromal cells. The stem cells for non-hematopoetic tissues are referred as mesenchymal cells because of their ability to differentiate as mesenchymal or stromal cells. Mesenchymal cells are easily obtainable from bone marrow by means of minimally invasive approach and can be expanded in culture and permitted to differentiate into the desired lineage. The differentiation can be reached by the application of bioactive, signaling molecules, specific growth factors. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily member proteins such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most important factors of chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesencymal stem cells. From the series of recently indentified, BMP 2,4 and 7 may play an important role in chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation proteins. Little is still known about the signaling pathway involved in tenogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, but there are some encouraging data about fibroblastic differentiation and affects of growth factors. The success of growth factor therapy needs a delivery system with biomaterials. Mesenchymal stem cells have become promising vehicles for gene therapy, cell therapy and tissue engineering. The authors deal in these review with the experimental investigations and with the clinical application of the adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells with bioactive molecules, growth factors.

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