that true participatory democracy requires linguistic inclusion so that everyone can talk to each other. In this study, we aim to add to the scholarship on democracy and language rights by considering the role of translationpolicy in the development of
The language policy of the French Revolution is known today especially for the imposition of the national language and the oppression of the dialects and regional languages in France. In my contribution, I want to focus on a less known aspect: the translation policy. From 1790 on, several decrees stipulated the translation of national laws and decrees into the regional languages in France. From the mid-1790s on, the translation policy was extended to other countries and regions under French rule. I will consider the case of the Southern Netherlands (Belgium), annexed by France in October 1795 and under French administration until the end of the Napoleonic era. According to the opinio communis, the period under consideration was strictly monolingual in France and Belgium, with French as the only language of administration and justice. I will argue that there was a covert multilingualism, that today is often ignored.
The paper draws on the perspectives provided by the
polysystem theory in Translation Studies and the "ideological" trends
in the discipline in order to detect preliminary and textual translation norms
that operated in Pre-Communist (Inter-War and World War II period) and
Communist Romania. However, translation-related issues are examined in a wider
historical, literary, cultural and political context. The "case of Aldous
Huxley" is thus illustrative for more general tendencies that were
manifest in terms of translation policies, textual norms and translators'
status during the two distinct periods under discussion. In the paper we also
emphasize the importance of translation studies for reception studies in
general, as well as the necessity for translation criticism both to improve
transla-tion standards at a given time and to highlight the translators'
remarkable achievements that frequently tend to be overlooked.
Future enlargement of the European Union is destined to accentuate the problems of its translation services. Some lessons for likely scenarios can be gleaned from the addition of Finnish to the list of official languages in 1995, especially with respect to juridical syntax, new terminology, the status of a relatively ‘opaque’ language, and the social factors influencing acceptance of change. These issues are linked to the special theoretical problems ensuing from translational equivalence as an EU ‘legal fiction’ and the subsequent non-directionality of translated texts. Official equality also hides extreme imbalances in language use, perhaps promising more than limited budgets may be able to deliver. It is suggested that, in preparation for such problems, restricted training programmes should be developed, the non-bureaucratic translation market should not be abandoned, and a series of critical questions should be asked of EU experts.
This study broadly considers textual and extra-textual factors involved in producing and disseminating Spanish translations, dimensions that may be linguistic, socio-linguistic, cognitive, economic, cultural, or legal. Sociolect and regionalect are considered in the translation traffic into Spanish, particularly in their relations to aesthetic verisimilitude or market acceptability. The phenomenon of what has been called textual mobility is traced. According to De Clercq et al. (2006), textual mobility may include translation policy, translator-publisher negotiations, printing industry conditions, copyright considerations, and other power matrices, including censorship and patronage. Censorship’s historical effects on translation policy are borne out in light of translational contraband and distribution. Variants of Spanish are shown to be involved in dynamics of writing from the margins, perceptions of language correctness, including the hybridity and its implications for identity, and the attendant issues of power. The special problem of interregional insularity is tied to migrational limitations. Finally, the Spanish-speaking world’s hierarchies, asymmetries, and inter- or intraliterary commerce practices past and present are broadly examined (including multinational publishing houses and editorial coproductions), alongside the advent of Spanish-language publishing in the United States and what this might augur for literarily localized or globalized Spanish translations.
The journalistic interview is a highly accepted genre in all the media (TV, radio, newspapers) and equally a much-translated genre. Just like many other news products, the distribution of interviews is governed by news organisations and alliances between media companies. This mode of news presentation goes across linguistic and cultural boundaries in a process of transcultural communication possible only through translation. Based on a comparative analysis of 21 interviews translated and published in the Spanish newspaper
in 2008, this study analyses the type of interviews selected for translation, the strategies used in the translational process, and whether these are similar to strategies in news translation in general. It also considers whether this material is translated as a stable source, respecting the original, or as an unstable source. Printed media have their own translation policies, which involve a complex process of recontextualization of the information in order to localise it to suit the interests of the media themselves and of their audience. This complex process of translation is widely misunderstood at an academic level in both the fields of Journalism Studies and Translation Studies.
. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2016. xvi, 380 pp, ISBN 978 902 725 8724 (reviewed in Vol. 18. No. 2. by Edina Robin) Gabriel González Núñez: Translating in Linguistically Diverse Societies. Translationpolicy in the United Kingdom . Amsterdam
Company. 2016. xvi + 380 pp. ISBN 978 902 725 8724 (reviewed in Vol. 18. No. 2. by Edina Robin) Gabriel González Núñez: Translating in Linguistically Diverse Societies: TranslationPolicy in the United Kingdom. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins
concerns of translation research (e.g., translation competence, ideology, norm, rewriting, risk and risk management, reception, cultural identity, globalisation, revision, less translated languages, hybridity, translationpolicy ). Table 9 Frequent words