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showcased the advantages of holistic scoring (e.g., an eclectic appreciation of overall translation quality; see Garant, 2009 ; McAlester, 2000 ; Turner et al., 2010 ) and expounded on the potential benefits of norm-referenced approach to assessment

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The aim of this article is to address some of the problems related to the notion of ‘professionalism’ in translation studies. Different definitions of professionalism and expertise are discussed on the basis of translation process research, expertise research and the sociology of translation. Translation quality is also touched upon, as it relates to both professionalism and expertise. We argue that both translation research and translator education need to deal with the developments on the translation market in order to better describe and explain the reality of translating, to change the reality if necessary, and to equip translation students with the skills and knowledge that are essential to cope with the realities.

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This paper reports on evaluative comments made over some ten years on research by students in the doctoral program in Translation and Intercultural Studies at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona, Spain. The vast majority of the comments are found to involve general shortcomings that do not particularly concern Translation Studies. This would suggest that research trainees do not really need a doctoral program in Translation Studies. Other weaknesses stem from the relatively undeveloped intellectual position of Translation Studies as a discipline, especially with regard to unstable terminology, the attribution of authority to other disciplines, and tendencies to disappear into philosophical aporias, into indiscriminate data-gathering, and into the uncritical extension of vocational values or professional best practices. Some shortcomings, however, would seem more germane to the nature of translation as an object of knowledge. This particularly concerns the problems of describing translation quality and attempts to position the researcher as being external to the intercultural processes being investigated. Translation researchers, it is argued, are necessarily interpreting language in a way similar to translators, operating on the borders between stabilizing systems. That special position, which is specific in terms of degree rather than kind, makes hermeneutic work and self-reflection basic parts of translation research, and trainees need to develop the corresponding awareness. On the other hand, to limit oneself to empirical and often positivistic methodologies from other disciplines would be to de-intellectualize the way researchers engage socially and politically with translation.

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collected from eye-tracking, keystroke logging, subjective rating, retrospective protocols, and translation quality evaluation. We aim to address the following two questions: (1) Do NMT quality and ST complexity have an interaction effect on the task

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In academic environments, the question of quality is often related to that of quantity. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of translation evaluation quality by focusing on several issues: a) the number of actions performed by evaluators as related to quality judgments; b) evaluator coincidence in mistakes detected (saliency of phenomena) as related to their nature; and c) quality judgment as related to the presence or absence of the most salient phenomena in the translated texts. Four groups of participants evaluated 48 translations; the results discussed derive from their actual performance. The results suggest that evaluators exhibiting a minimum level of detail in their work should be thorough in their evaluative work for, if they are not, they run the risk of being too generous in their evaluations. Among the error judgments for which there is the highest degree of coincidence are those on divergent interpretation of the original text, terminology, syntax, (language) use and misprints. Conversely, evaluators do not usually coincide in pointing out punctuation, format, proper nouns, clarity, cohesion or appropriateness phenomena. Finally, texts including the most salient phenomena receive worse grades than those without them; this points to an implicit hierarchy of phenomena according to the extent to which evaluators coincide in pointing them out.

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that rut was cognitively more effortful. Studies addressing translation quality have also used different methods. Fiederer and O'Brien's (2009) human raters assigned mtpe texts higher values in accuracy and clarity, but lower ones in style than

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Across Languages and Cultures
Authors:
JAMAL MOHAMED GIABER
,
NOUR HAMMO
,
SAFA HRAIZ
,
DU’AA QADAN
,
RAHF ALNAMER
, and
SHAIKHA ALMAAMARI

identify the translation techniques adopted in translating headlines in print business advertisements from English into Arabic and the implications of these techniques for translation quality. b. To identify views of Arab potential customers in UAE over the

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trainees as a consecutive feature of translation professionalism with a particular focus on authenticity and translation quality assessment”, one wonders why such a pivotal concept is left out in the cold. A major theme elaborated in the dictionary is

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, 2019 ; Moorkens et al., 2018 ). Focal points have included human and automated translation quality assessment ( Doherty, 2017 ), TQA (Translation Quality Assessment) metrics and approaches ( Brunette, 2000 ) and competence assessment ( Galán

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compatible with the needs, abilities, and limitations of people (p. 132). Environmental and social factors affect translators' work and translation quality. Ehrensberger-Dow and Jääskeläinen argue that ergonomically orientated TS (or Translator Studies , as

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