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The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution and possible transmission routes of Toxocara spp. infection in Estonia. Out of 454 faecal and sand samples collected from park lawns and sandpits in the town of Tartu, 19 were Toxocara positive (4.2%). Out of the 45 sandpit samples 17.8% were Toxocara positive. Cat faeces was found in 21 sandpit samples. Parasitological necropsies were performed on 41 euthanised stray dogs and 27 cats in the Tallinn Dog Home. Additionally, 13 wild free-roaming brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) were captured from the Tallinn Dog Home territory, necropsied and studied for the presence of Toxocara larvae. Toxocara canis adults were found in 14.6% of the dogs and Toxocara cati (syn. mystax) adults in the small intestines of 48.2% of the cats examined. Larval infection was detected in the kidney and liver in 5 dogs (12.2%). Our study demonstrated only low-level larval Toxocara infections in adult dogs. Toxocara larvae were not found in cats and brown rats. According to the results of this study, cats more often carry Toxocara infection than dogs. Under our conditions, stray and free-roaming cats are the main contaminators of the environment with Toxocara eggs. Children playing in sandpits are the main risk group for larval toxocarosis.

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). Transmission to humans Epidemiologically, anthrax in humans can result from occupational (agricultural or industrial) exposure and non-occupational (accidental or everyday) exposure ( Table 1 ) [ 38, 60–62 ]. Animal graves and burial sites, biothermal pits and

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Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are among the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, particularly in Africa. Poultry remains a major source of Campylobacter species and a vector of transmission to humans.

This pilot study was aimed at isolating and determining the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter spp. from fresh poultry droppings collected from poultry farms in Lagos State, Nigeria. Susceptibility was assessed using the CLSI standards.

Standard microbiological methods were used in isolation, identification, and characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.

Of the 150 poultry droppings analyzed, 8 (5.3%) harbored Campylobacter spp. All isolates proved to be C. coli since they were all negative for the hip gene. A percentage of 100% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin, and streptomycin. While 87.5% were susceptible to amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 62.5% were susceptible to tetracycline. Surprisingly, 62.5% of C. coli had decreased (intermediate) susceptibility to erythromycin.

Although there was a low prevalence of C. coli from poultry in this study, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains circulating the food chain could result in treatment failures and difficulty in case management if involved in infections of humans.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Boris Habrun, Ivana Račić, Relja Beck, Ana Budimir, Miroslav Benić, Gordan Kompes, Silvio Špičić, and Željko Cvetnić

Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69 , 6489–6494. Lee H. J. Methicillin- (oxacillin

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Zoran Lipej, Dinko Novosel, Lea Vojta, Besi Roić, Miljenko Šimpraga, and Aleksandar Vojta

virus transmission to humans. J. Infect. Dis. 202 , 825–834. Gerolami R. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans J

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, and Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix

neurological disorders [ 2 ]. Toxocariasis is one of the most commonly reported zoonotic helminth infections in the world [ 3 ]. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental infection of eggs present in, for instance, contaminated fruits or vegetables [ 4

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Slimane Khayi, Said Oulghazi, Brahim Bouchrif, Abdellah El Allaoui, Bouchra Ouhmidou, and Mohieddine Moumni

, such as desiccation, temperature extremes, antibiotics, and antiseptics [ 32 ], which allowed these bacteria to survive longer in animal farms and to contaminate meats and eggs, which remain the main vehicles of Salmonella transmission to humans

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Ingrid E. Pereira, Kyssia P. Silva, Laura M. Menegati, Aimara C. Pinheiro, Elaine A. O. Assunção, Maria De Lourdes P. Araújo, Elfadil Abass, Malcolm S. Duthie, Ulrich Steinhoff, and Henrique C. Teixeira

factor for the ongoing transmission to humans [ 6 ]. The current gold standard for diagnosing CVL is the positive parasitological examination of aspirates and smears of bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph node and microscopic analyses of biopsy material

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Manja Boehm, Daniel Simson, Ulrike Escher, Anna-Maria Schmidt, Stefan Bereswill, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert, and Markus M. Heimesaat

means of transmission to humans, and food-borne campylobacteriosis cases account for 400–500 million cases annually [ 12 ], corresponding to estimated 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) [ 3 ]. However, not all infections result in disease

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