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Billig , Michael 1995: Banal Nationalism. London. Donnan , Hastings — Wilson , Thomas 1999: Borders. Frontier of Identity, Nation and State. Oxford. Hannerz , Ulf 1998: Transnational Research. In

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The concept of modern constitutionalism is intimately related to notions of state sovereignty. The actual influence of the constitution as a hierarchical tool of nation-state design remains a matter of dubious empirical validity. Today, among the conditions of intergovernmentalism and globalization, state centered constitutionalism is confronting governance by networks: both private domestic networks and networks of national governmental institutions are becoming decision-makers, which cannot be controlled within the concepts of state based constitutionalism. Notwithstanding these developments the above difficulties of constitutional social steering and determination of the public sphere have not resulted in the dethroning of the paradigm of state centered constitutional law in the constitutional law community. Such disregard runs the risk to turn constitutionalism into irrelevant speculation in an age of globalization. In the globalized world the most important decisions and events affecting society escape the control of the sovereign state operating on the principle of territoriality. In this paper I consider two structures of polycentric exercise of public power that are decisive for a new paradigm of constitutionalism. The first type of transnational network structure is primarily a network of private ordering with the participation of administrative bodies of the desaggregat­ing state and private entities associated with the administrative entities (transboundary private networks). A second kind of transnational networks (transgovernmental networks) originates from supranational organizations that operate beyond the nation state. Transgovernmental networks take away traditional governmental functions and overwrite/replace the decisions of the state organs. The taking of state functions includes regulation, adjudication, enforcement, material and other services. The actions of the networks are beyond the control of the constitu­tionally designated authorities and follow principles, which are unrelated to the otherwise pertinent constitutional principles. The article considers the impact of international networks on the desaggregation of the constitutional state and the possibility of a new legitimation for transnational network-based governance.

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. World Investment Directory (2004): Latin America and the Caribbean. Genf: UNCTAD. Dorner, A. (2003): Mexico from the Perspective of the Transnational Companies. Development and Finance 3: 54

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Avci, G. and McDonald, C. (2000): Chipping Away at the Fortress: Unions, Immigration and the Transnational Labour Market. International Migration , 38(2): 191

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Abstract  

Patent statistics are a frequently used innovation indicator for the description and analysis of technological strengths and weaknesses, both on the macro and the micro level. Patent data has a broad coverage, high reliability, allows a very differentiated perspective and the data has become easier in availability and accessibility. Especially when cross country comparisons and comparative assessments are intended, a deep knowledge and understanding of patent systems is required. In the 1990s Triadic patents, which were able to balance the home advantage of domestic applicants/inventors. An increasing internationalisation and globalisation makes it also necessary to adapt the patent analyses to this new world order. In this paper the so called Transnational patents are suggested, which allows to grasp the new relations and relative positions between the industrialised, industrialising and emerging countries. The existing concepts are presented and discussed and contrasted against the concept of Transnational Patents.

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) Thoughtful readers may question that the substantial differences in patent examiners from different countries may be attributed to the distinctive transnational citation patterns here (Michel and Bettels 2001 ), especially in the situation where similar

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I would like to essay what might be a plausible definition of Comparative Literature in the year 2000. I shall do so as a function of the five propositions posited below, propositions that are based on certain historical commonplaces of our threshold epoch between the twentieth and the twenty-first centuries. First the definition: Comparative Literature is the systematic practice of discerning, examining, and theorizing symbolic processes as they affect the material and aesthetic enablements in the production, valuation, and dissemination of literary culture at and through transnational and transcultural sites.

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This study analyzes the pattern of transnational linkages of Indian science in eleven scientific fields (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth & Space Science, Agriculture, Clinical Medicine, Biomedical Research, Engineering & Technology, Computer Science, and Materials Science) during the five-year period: 1990–1994. The following indicators are constructed to examine inter-field and inter-country differences in India’s transnational linkages: Internationalization index, Cooperation index, Cooperation extensiveness index and Affinity index. A four-category typology is proposed to classify the fields according to their propensities for attracting bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign countries. The structure of multidimensional system of relationships between India’s thirty-five most significant partner countries and eleven scientific fields is analyzed through correspondence analysis. A series of correspondence analyses are carried out on subsets of the multidimensional data to reveal the fine-grained structure of India’s cooperation links in clusters of specific fields and with clusters of specific countries.

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This paper reports the results of an empirical study on the impact of three proximity measures: geographical distance, thematic distance and socio-economic distance among the set of 45 scientifically most advanced countries on their cooperation network. In network data, individuals (viz. countries) are linked to one another and the relationships are nested and embedded in groups, with the result that statistical assumptions of independence underlying ordinary least squares regression are systematically violated. Hence, we have used a non-parametric regression procedure, Quadratic Assignment Procedure (QAP), for regressing the matrix of transnational cooperation on the matrices of three proximity measures: geographic proximity, thematic proximity and socio-economic proximity. The results indicate that all the three proximity measures have the expected negative effect on transnational cooperation. Geographic proximity has greater impact than the other proximity measures.

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The aim of my paper is to discuss the cross-border region of the Tornio River Valley between Finland and Sweden as a religious landscape. The present state border between the two countries was defined in1809, at a time when the border was not between Finland and Sweden, but between Sweden and Russia, and it dramatically severed the Finnish-speaking area in the river valley. First I will discuss the shared religious heritage in this area, the Laestadian Movement. Then I shall discuss the position of the Orthodox religion focusing on the Orthodox Church in Tornio (Finland). The church was built after Finland became part of the Russian Empire. In conclusion I shall focus on the role of religion/church in contemporary life in the cross-border area. Or, how the church is taking into account the profound changes in this cross-border area? Before I turn to my cases, I shall present a brief historical account of this area, because the contemporary situation must be seen in the light of historical and political change. This article is part of my research project in which I am focusing on everyday transnationalism, as experienced by town dwellers.

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