treatment for impulse control disorders ( Mallorquí-Bagué et al., 2018 ) is an important limitation of the field, compromising the ability to estimate treatmenteffects. This study aimed to address this empirical gap. Unfortunately, the efficacy of
interactions were identified in these studies with more pronounced changes in symptom severity in the treatment group compared to the control group. In three studies treatmenteffects on behavior enactment was reported ( Bőthe et al., 2021 ; Crosby & Twohig
The present review deals with the radiation chemistry of dilute aqueous solutions of organic substances emphasizing the possibility of use of high energy radiation in wastewater treatment. Effects of radiation on biodegradability, toxicity to water organisms and changes in molecules of solutes showing resistance to biochemical degradation and toxicity to water organisms are discussed.
suffering from IUD. As has been depicted above, clinical trials have demonstrated that IUD patients display improvement in psychopathological symptoms but to our knowledge, changes in positive outcomes caused by treatmenteffects have not yet been
). Similar to CBT, MI has yielded significant short-term treatmenteffects in terms of amount of money lost and gambling frequency. However, long-term treatmenteffects were only maintained for the latter outcome ( Yakovenko et al., 2015 ). Mindfulness
.e., categorical, ordinal, or continuous). For investigating possible treatmenteffects, multivariable linear regression models were generated and tested on a complete case basis, using the package “stats” in R. Change scores between baseline and 6-week follow
The main objective of this work was to study the importance of applying gypsum and sulphur to the soil to inhibit the hazardous effects of soil salinity stress on the vegetative growth and yield quantity and quality of rice plants (Oriza sativa L., cv. Sakha 101) grown on a salt-affected soil irrigated with low quality water from the El-Salam (El-Shikh Zaid) Canal. Two field experiments were carried out during two successive seasons (2011, 2012) at Sahl El-Tina plain, village 4, Gilbana town. Gypsum was applied at a rate of 10.7 Mg ha−1)1 while sulphur was added in two forms, as elemental sulphur at a rate of 4.8 Mg ha−1) or as sulphuric acid at a rate of 1190 L ha−1. The results could be summarized as follows: The highest values of rice yield and its attributes as well as nutrient content and uptake were obtained after treatment with sulphuric acid. The treatment effects decreased in the order: sulphuric acid > sulphur > gypsum > control. The highest proline content (21.3 μmol g−1) was recorded after the gypsum treatment.
In recent decades, nitrogenous compounds, arising from various anthropogenic sources, have become significant components of precipitation and have been shown to have some profound effects on both species richness and dominance of some plant communities. To examine how nitrogen addition can affect the species composition of Central Great Plains prairie plant communities, we applied N fertilizer at five levels for each of five consecutive years at two sites in south-central Kansas with similar rainfall and temperature regimes. One site was a tallgrass prairie and the other was a sand prairie community. The treatments consisted of N additions at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 g N/m2 in the form of solid urea. Within permanent plots, we monitored annually species richness and evenness, and percentage cover by cool-season graminoids, N-fixing species, and annual/biennial species. All these measures varied considerably among years at both sites, but N treatment effects were evident at the sand prairie site only. At the sand prairie, in general species richness and percentage cover by legumes declined with N addition. Moreover, species were excluded non-randomly from N addition plots, with several species apparently particularly intolerant of N addition. The results reinforce a relationship, observed in Europe and the northern Great Plains, between N addition and plant biodiversity decline in grassland communities, and may point to a serious conservation concern for rare species under a chronic regime of N-enhanced precipitation.
Psychedelic compounds hold promise for alleviating human suffering. Initial trials of psychedelic-assisted treatments have established feasibility and safety, generating calls for replications. Meanwhile, social and medical sciences have drawn criticism due to perceptions of replication failures and varying public trust in empiricism. Data suggest that researchers and the public frequently misunderstand some of the statistical issues associated with replication, potentially leading to unrealistic expectations of treatment effects. Promoting discourse on what constitutes sufficient replication is especially warranted considering the ongoing progression of multi-site phase II and III clinical trials. Here, we review recent and classic work on prediction intervals and power analysis to reveal that trials of psychedelic-assisted therapy that emphasize statistical significance will likely include failures to replicate, especially if sample sizes do not increase dramatically. The field and the public should expect some failed replication attempts based on sampling variability alone. Continued emphasis on statistical significance will require markedly larger samples than those used in clinical trials to date, necessitating substantially greater resources. An alternative approach focused on prediction intervals has distinct advantages. We focus on a recent trial of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD to show that, based on prediction intervals, reasonable replications are well within reach. A lack of attention to these statistical issues could unnecessarily prompt widespread dismissal of these therapies before the intervention receives adequate investigation and a fair assessment. In contrast, realistic expectations and appropriate planning could help ensure that these treatments receive the opportunity to help those most in need.
We tested the prediction that we are more likely to create persistent, species-rich plant communities by increasing the number of species sown and allowing communities to assemble over six or seven growing seasons. Treatments consisted of four initial seed mixtures comprising 4, 8, 12 and 16 species that represent four functional groups C3 graminoids, C4 grasses, N-fixing species, and late-flowering composites) that predominate within North American prairies. Once seeded, half of the plots were left alone to develop without subsequent reseeding. To provide multiple opportunities for establishment, we reseeded the remaining plots with any target species that failed to establish after two growing seasons. There were two 16 x 16 m (256 m2) replicates per treatment established in 1994 and 1996 on former agricultural land. Annually, we measured total species richness and evenness, total cover, and establishment success defined as target species richness and total percentage cover by target species, collectively. In some instances, significant treatment x year interactions indicated that treatment effects on variables varied among years. Both richness and rate of establishment of target communities were higher in the more species-rich mixtures. Moreover, richness of resident species in the plots declined with increasing target species richness. Reseeding had no measurable effect on any of the variables, nor on the eventual establishment of target communities or individual target species. Our results, indicating that establishment of species-rich plant communities can be enhanced by starting with larger numbers of species at the outset, have implications for projects in which community biodiversity creation and maintenance are key goals.