Authors:Bronislava Butkutė, Audronė Mankevičienė, and Irena Gaurilčikienė
Field experiments were conducted over 3 years to assess the effects of fungicides (F) containing strobilurins (alone and in mixture with morpholine, triazoles) and triazoles (epoxiconazole or propiconazole) on winter wheat ‘Zentos’ grain quality, incidence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in the field, grain contamination with fungi and mycotoxins. The effect of strobilurins and triazoles on the parameters tested was more dependent on the weather conditions of the growing season than on the F applied. The incidence of FHB was low in 2002 and 2003, but high in 2004. Averaged data suggest that strobilurin treatments decreased the level of FHB. In 2002, grain contamination with fungi was lower than in 2003 and 2004. The data on the impact of fungicides on post-harvest grain infection with Fusarium spp. and contamination with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 were controversial. The fungicides only insignificantly affected protein and gluten concentration in grain, as well as sedimentation and falling number. All grain quality components were especially dependent on the year (significant at P<0.01). However, fungicide application significantly, at P<0.01, increased grain protein and gluten yields: they were higher for the strobilurin-treated plots (with a small exception) than for the untreated and those treated with propiconazole.
Authors:Liang Xue, Feng-Qi Zhao, Xiao-Ling Xing, Zhi-Ming Zhou, Kai Wang, Hong-Xu Gao, Jian-Hua Yi, Si-Yu Xu, and Rong-Zu Hu
Triazole is a five-membered heterocyclic compound, which contains three nitrogen atoms. The three nitrogen atoms are on position 1,2,4 or 1,2,3 of a five-membered heterocycle. Triazole derivative has proven to be a
Authors:Liang Xue, Feng-Qi Zhao, Xiao-Ling Xing, Zhi-Ming Zhou, Kai Wang, Hong-Xu Gao, Jian-Hua Yi, and Rong-Zu Hu
Recently, many studies in developing energetic salts and energetic ionic liquids based on 1,2,3-triazole and 1,2,4-triazole as cations and nitrates, perchlorates, and dinitramides as anions have been made [ 4 – 6 ]. On the thermal aspect, kinetic and
Authors:Anne-Catherine Bédard, Jeffrey Santandrea, and Shawn K. Collins
The continuous-flow synthesis of a series of 11- to 26-membered macrocycles via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition is reported. The approach employs homogeneous catalysis to promote formation of triazole-containing macrocycles in good to excellent yields (65–90%) at relatively high concentration (30–50 mM) using a phase separation strategy.
Authors:Mihaela Badea, Rodica Olar, Dana Marinescu, and Gina Vasile
A series of new complexes with mixed ligands of the type [ML(C3H3O2)2]·nH2O (((1)M=Mn, n=1; (2)M=Co(II), n=2; (3)M=Ni(II), n=4; (4)M=Cu(II), n=1.5; (5)M=Zn(II), n=0; L=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and (C3H3O2)=acrylate anion) were synthesized and characterised by chemical analysis and IR data. In all complexes the 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole
acts as bridge while the acrylate acts as bidentate ligand except for complex (5) where it is found as unidentate. The thermal behaviour steps were investigated in nitrogen flow. The thermal transformations
are complex processes according to TG and DTG curves including dehydration, acrylate ion and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole degradation
respectively. The final products of decomposition are the most stable metal oxides, except for complex (4) that leads to metallic copper.
In order to obtain a better understanding of thermal substituent effects in 1,2,4-triazole-3-one (TO), the thermal behavior
of 1,2,4-triazole, TO, as well as urazole and the decomposition mechanism of TO were investigated. Thermal substituent effects
were considered using thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, sealed cell differential scanning calorimetry, and molecular
orbital calculations. The onset temperature of 1,2,4-triazole was higher than that of TO and urazole. Analyses of evolved
decomposition gases were carried out using thermogravimetry–infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry.
The gases evolved from TO were determined as HNCO, HCN, N2, NH3, CO2, and N2O.
Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-5-[14C]-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-sulfonamide-phenyl)-5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-5-[14C]-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-fluoro-benzonitrile-[cyano-14C].
Authors:Qi Yang, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen, and Shengli Gao
useful strategy to construct such supramolecular frameworks is to employ appropriate organic linker capable of binding metal centers through direct bond formation. 1,2,4-Triazole and its derivatives are very interesting polydentate building blocks because
1,2,4-triazole-3-one (TO) and guanidine nitrate (GN) have the potential to be used as alternative gas-generating agents. To
obtain a better understanding of thermal decomposition properties of TO/GN mixtures, sealed cell differential scanning calorimetry,
thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis–infrared spectroscopy (TG–DTA–IR), and thermogravimetry–differential thermal
analysis–mass spectrometry (TG–DTA–MS) were carried out. The endothermic peak and onset temperatures of TO/GN mixtures were
lower than those of individual TO and GN. TG–DTA–IR and TG–DTA–MS showed that the mass of TO/GN mixtures decreased with heat
generation and N2 evolved as the major gas during thermal decomposition. The interaction between TO and nitric acid from the dissociation of
GN is proposed for the thermal decomposition of TO/GN mixtures.