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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Tamás Csurka
,
Klára Pásztor-Huszár
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
Richárd Pintér
, and
László Ferenc Friedrich

expensive. Water is added into the blood, which has to be removed. Blood coagulation can be inhibited by EDTA or other substances, for instance heparin or vitamin K antagonists (coumarins), but trisodium-citrate is preferred in the case of food industry. The

Open access

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in an impinging jet reactor (IJR) was investigated due to its unique properties of efficient mixing and lack of channel walls which avoid fouling. Silver NPs were formed at room temperature by reducing silver nitrate with sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Two types of ligand were used to stabilize the NPs, trisodium citrate, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Weber number, the ratio between inertial forces and surface tension forces, is used to characterize flow in impinging jets. Flow regimes were investigated forWeber numbers in the range of 13–176. A liquid sheet/chain regime was identified at lowerWeber numbers (<90), and an unstable rim structure was identified at higherWeber numbers (>90). Mixing time was found to be in the range 1–7ms, using theVillermaux—Dushman reaction system and interaction by exchange with the mean mixing (IEM) model. Fastest mixing occurred at Weber number ca. 90. Using trisodium citrate as a ligand, NP size decreased from 7.9 ± 5.8 nm to 3.4 ± 1.4 nm when flow rate was increased from 32 mL/min to 72 mL/min using 0.5 mm jets, and from 6.4 ± 3.4 nm to 5.1 ± 4.6 nm when flow rate was increased from 20 mL/min to 32 mL/min using 0.25 mm jets. Using PVA as a ligand, NP size decreased from 5.4 ± 1.6 nm to 4.2 ± 1.1 nm using 0.5 mm jets and stayed relatively constant between 4.3 ± 1 nm and 4.7 ± 1.3 nm using 0.25 mm jets. In general, the size of the NPs decreased when mixing was faster.

Open access

The aim of this study was to monitor renal function in diarrhoeic calves and to determine the effectiveness of an applied fluid therapy. A total of 28 diarrhoeic (n = 18) and healthy (n = 10) Holstein-Friesian calves of different sexes, between 1 and 30 days of age, were used. Blood and urine samples were obtained from diarrhoeic calves before the treatment and then three more times at 24-h intervals during the treatment. From healthy calves, samples were taken only once. Therapy was started by the intravenous administration of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions for the first 24 h, followed by the oral application of a commercial electrolyte solution (sodium chloride 3.5 g, trisodium citrate 2.9 g, potassium chloride 1.5 g and glucose anhydrous 20 g in 1 litre H2O) up to the 48th h of therapy. Before the therapy, the average levels of pH (7.10 ± 0.12), bicarbonate (HCO3 -) (16.48 ± 3.80 mmol/l), base deficit (-12.65 ± 5.97 mmol/l) and fractional excretion (FE) of sodium (0.16 ± 0.11%) and potassium (15.07 ± 8.56%) were significantly lower while serum urea (17.48 ± 10.32 mmol/l) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations (169.72 ± 98.12 µmol/l), haematocrit levels (45.13 ± 13.60%) and urinary gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)/Cr ratio (8.6 ± 4.3 × 1/103 U/µmol) were significantly higher in diarrhoeic calves than in healthy calves. Alterations in parameters indicating the presence of renal dysfunction were normalised in the diarrhoeic calves that survived (83.3%). Three calves with severe metabolic acidosis and azotaemia died at the beginning of therapy. It was concluded that the FE of Na and K (FENa, FEK) and urine GGT/Cr ratio may have an important role in assessing renal function in diarrhoeic calves and in evaluating the effectiveness of an applied fluid therapy.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Francesco Dima
,
Gian Luca Salvagno
,
Elisa Danese
,
Dino Veneri
, and
Giuseppe Lippi

fluoride, lithium or calcium chloride heparin, ammonium oxalate and trisodium citrate pyridoxal 5-phosphate, and Tris). Among these different options, sample collection in 3.2% buffered sodium citrate is the most practical and thus it is deemed as the most

Open access
Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Csaba Csutoras
,
Andras Misz
,
Csaba Nagy-Koteles
,
Nora Bakos-Barczi
, and
Laszlo Racz

. QuEChERS EN 15662 Method Packet mixture (magnesium sulfate 4 g, sodium chloride 1 g, trisodium-citrate-dihidrate 1 g, disodium-citrate-sesquihidrate 0.5 g) was added to the mixture, and it was intensively further shaken for 1 min. Sample was centrifuged for

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
József Lehel
,
Petra Vöröskői
,
András Palkovics
,
Csaba Szabó
,
Lívia Darnay
,
Péter Budai
,
Péter Laczay
, and
Katalin Lányi

of sodium chloride, 1 g of trisodium citrate and 0.5 g of disodium hydrogen citrate, and finally 2 g of magnesium sulphate were added to the sample. After a repeated intensive shaking for 1 min the sample was centrifuged for 5 min at 6,000 rpm and 6

Open access

medium buffered at pH 5.5. The latter is obtained using a complexion solution of trisodium citrate. The results are reported on Table 2 . Table 2 Contents of ions contained in carbonate fluorapatites

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.43%) were produced by Centrohem (Stara Pazova, Serbia). Klozan® placebo contains ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disodium salt, trisodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid monohydrate, propylene glycol, and glycerol anhydrous. Klozan® suspension for

Open access

effect of trisodium-citrate on blood coagulation by viscometric approach . Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences , 16 ( S2 ): 19 – 26 . https://doi.org/10.1556/446.2020.20003 . Kovács , A. , Körmendi , L. , and Badakné , K.K. ( 2021

Open access

was from QReC® Asia, (Selangor, Malaysia). Citric acid anhydrous, sodium phosphate dibasic, and sodium hydroxide pellets were purchased from R&M (Essex, England). Trisodium citrate dehydrate was from Citrique Belge (Belgium). Potassium phosphate

Open access