. A. Szebeni Gy. Tolvaj A. Zalatnay 2006 Correlation of ultrasound attenuation and histopathological parameters of the liver in chronic diffuse liver diseases Eur. J. Gastroenterol. 18 37 – 42 .
. R. F
Water content of dry sausages may decrease due to improper ripening and storage as well. As a consequence, an outer crust appears on the surface of the products. The aim of the industry is either to eliminate the presence of outer crust, or decrease its occurrence. The thickness of outer crust can be estimated by non-destructive ultrasound technique. As the propagation time and attenuation of ultrasonic waves vary in the materials with different water content, the thickness of outer crust and the normal texture, respectively, can be estimated on the basis of these characteristics. The propagation and attenuation values are typical for the given layers. Thus, by measuring total attenuation and total width of the product, the thickness of outer crust can be calculated by means of the velocity and attenuation coefficients of ultrasonic waves. Results of this non-destructive measurement may support the proper adjustment of ripening and storage parameters such as temperature and humidity.
Power ultrasound has vast potential in the food industry; however, there are no works on its effects on desserts. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of ultrasound as a mixing or homogenization step or as a tool to modify the texture of the soy-based desserts without reformulating the product. Different properties of soybased desserts were evaluated and the behaviour of the samples during storage under refrigeration (60 days) was monitored. The samples were treated with an ultrasound probe for 1, 3, and 5 min. The treated samples showed lower mean particle size, lower consistency index, higher flow index, and clear difference in their microstructure. However, water holding capacity and particle size dispersion index values did not differ among untreated and treated soy based desserts for 1 and 3 minutes, and none of the treatments caused visible colour differences among the samples. Periodically, rheological properties, pH, soluble solids content, colour, particle size, and water holding capacity were determined. After 60 days, all evaluated properties differed significantly, except for the pH.
The length of the streak canal and the area of the teat end were studied by ultrasound during the dry period in 40 Holstein-Friesian cows. In the first week, the values of these teat parameters decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and this did not change significantly until the middle of the dry period. In the last month of gestation, the length of the streak canal was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while the area of the teat end did not decrease significantly (P > 0.05). At each of the five examination times, a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.85-0.94) was found between the two teat parameters. In healthy cows, the streak canal and the area of teat end, both of which are part of the udder’s defence system, can regenerate sufficiently during the dry period, minimising the risk of contamination through the streak canal and the development of mastitis. If the regeneration of this defence system fails, the chances of infection through the streak canal increase.
Olive oil was obtained by applying laboratory scale microwave (MW) and ultrasound (US) technologies and enzymes (E) after olive crushing and malaxation. The effects of these technologies on some physical and chemical properties of olive oil have been examined with focus on phenolics in olive oil. The aim was to evaluate the combined effect of MW and US applications and E to olive paste by comparing with conventional production.
The secoiridoids were present with lower values in US applied samples; as an example, the amount of 3-4-DHPEA-EDA in US treated sample was 59.36 mg kg–1 oil, whereas its amount was 92.36 mg kg–1 in the sample of conventional extraction. US resulted in the highest decrease (62%), and MW+US condition resulted in the lowest decrease (25.7%) in terms of total phenolics content. The US and MW pretreatments resulted in more advantageous properties in terms of free acidity, peroxides, and phenolics when applied together than their single applications.
the amount of energy applied, different reaction levels are induced in tissues. In recent years, the interest of researchers has increasingly been focused on the role of ultrasound in the human environment, with regard to both physical therapeutics and