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The results of our empirical researches carried out in North-East Hungarian region is analyzed and compared with national and international experiences. During last decade, we examined social and health status of Gipsy/Roma people living in this region in frame of researches, two of them were proceed at county, others at settlement level. We present our results grouped around three problems, which gives a chance for empirical testing of hypothesis of other researches reflected on this problems. Typical sample’s characteristics of Hajdúböszörmény study made feasible to analyze the statements on correlation between underclass situation and ethnicity. Our results proved the statement that the poverty makes ethnical feature but not only Roma can be ranked among underclassed. In our study we deeply analyze coherence of ethnicity and poverty; besides of income poverty we touch the housing poverty, deprivation in wealth and living conditions, and the problems of social-political poverty. The health state was studied through the subjective health picture, utilization of the health care system, satisfaction with care services and the list of most frequently complaints, diseases.We aspired in our study to give structural and cultural explanation of examined phenomenon, moreover to present correlations, although because of research methods we rather analyzed successes of structural effects.

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The purpose of this analysis is to shed light on distribution of poverty within the social structure. Using comparable national survey data from Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Hungary we determine to what extent social determinants of poverty observed in the capitalist West are also at work in the specific context of East European societies. Second area of inquiry, here, concerns the formation of the uinderclass. In searching for a post-communist underclass this analysis attemps to figure out the social location of the poor relative to positions occupied by intelligentsia, other non-manual categories, working class, peasants, and owners. The districtive characteistics of the Western underclass are labor market detachment, social isolatio, and material seprivation. Using discrimination analysis we examine the placement of the poor within the social structure relative to ovvupationally based class categories. This analysis shows that in multidimensional space as defined in terms of social origin, educational achievements, housing conditions, material possessions, and ethnicity there is no significant differences between the poor and ocupationally-based class categories in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. contrariwise, significant distinctions of this kind appear in Romania, Slovakia and Russia. In interpretation of these findings we seek to answer the question whether after decade of political and economic transformations, unique features of poverty in Eastern Europe tend to intermingle with universal patterns.

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The research basis is provided by the project Povetry, Ethnicity, Gender in Transitional Societies implemented under the leadership of Professor Iván Szeláényi in six countries of he former Eastern block in 1999-2000. The data have confirmed the initial assumption of the study: new poverty is being born, which is not an element of the life cycle of the individual but rather a socio-economic dependence affecting entire groups of people. The socio-biological factors (age, gender, children) are not pushed away but are rather transformed by the new dominant. The new socio-economic context even reinforces their effect, especially in osme  countries. A new, unexpected phenomenon is the formation of an age underclass in Southeast and Russia. All the countriessurveyed, except for Poland, exhibit symptoms of poverty feminization. The number of children in a family is a primordial factor bearing on the family budget. However, the stringest dependence is ethnicity-based. The poverty of Roma in Southeast Europe is catastrophic and separates them into an ethnic underclass. Roma people in Hungary are losers as well but their poverty has a different macro-economic backdrop. The differentia specifica of the research topic itself: it is not a static situation but  a process in which reason and effect change places, a process that both shapes and is affected by the social structure. In parallel to the liberalization of economic initiative, powerful destructive processes are under way tear the old social connections apart and turn the social atatus of immense groups of people upside down. the former middle layers are layered further. The income below avarage is the common denominator for many of them (in Central Europe) or for the majority (southeast Europe and Russia), in contrast to the avarage income before. It could be foreseen that povetry will be irreversible for many and would entail declassation. This is already a fact for ethnic minorites in Southeast Europe and for elderly people there and in Russia. The further dynamics of the process could be traced at a new stage of the study.

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Roma népesség és oktatástervezés

Roma Population and Education Planning

Educatio
Author:
Attila Papp Z.

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány népszámlálási és kutatási adatok segítségével a roma tanulókkal kapcsolatos oktatási kérdések értelmezésére, az esetleges oktatáspolitikai beavatkozások megalapozására tesz kísérletet. A szerző azt állítja, a romának gondolt tanulók jelenléte önmagában nem kellene semmilyen nyelvi-etnikai kihívást jelentsen, hiszen az esetek zömében – a népszámlálási adatok tanúsága szerint – szintén magyar anyanyelvű népességről van szó. Az igazi kihívást a roma populáció társadalmi szerkezetben elfoglalt helye jelenti: mivel az alsóbb társadalmi rétegekbe, gyakran társadalmon kívüli élethelyzetekbe szorulva élnek, ez visszahat az iskolai eredményességükre, illetve társadalmi integrációjukra is.

Summary. Based on census and research data the study tries to analyse the educational situation of Roma students, and it intends to describe some educational policy interventions. According to the author the school presence of the Roma students is not an ethnic or linguistique question as Hungarian language is their mother tongue. The real challenge is the social situation of the Roma population: as they live in lower social strata, often in underclass situation, this has an impact on their school performance, and finally on their social integration.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Grace M. Barnes
,
John W. Welte
,
Marie-Cecile O. Tidwell
, and
Joseph H. Hoffman

1987 The truly disadvantaged — The inner city, the underclass, and public policy The University of Chicago Press Chicago . W. J

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28 Lokshin, M. - Popkin, B. M. (1999): The Emerging Underclass in the Russian Federation: Income Dynamics 1992-96. Economic Development and Cultural Change , 47 : 803

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educational system or on the labor market, they often choose to give up her Roma/Gypsy identity. That means, they do not consider themselves to be a member of the Roma/Gypsy community, and inversely. This theory is formulated in one type of “underclass theory

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). Patterns of exclusion. Constructing Gypsy ethnicity and the making of an underclass in transitional societies of Europe . New York : Columbia University Press . Liégeois , J.-P. , & Acton , T. ( 1994 ). Roma, gypsies, travellers . Strasbourg

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Edina Berlinger
,
Zsolt Bihary
,
Katalin Dobránszky-Bartus
, and
György Molnár

. Econometrica , 58 ( 6 ): 1279 – 1319 . https://doi.org/10.2307/2938317 . Gans , H. J. ( 1994 ): Positive Functions of the Undeserving Poor: Uses of the Underclass in America . Politics & Society , 22 ( 3 ): 269 – 283 . Hart , O. – Moore , J

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analytics to self-driving cars. The pay provided for this challenging yet tedious work is variable and unpredictable, since companies continually shift their outsourcing to regions with the cheapest labor force. The result is “a vast tasker underclass

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