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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J. Bányai, P. Szűcs, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, Cs. Kuti, L. Láng, and Z. Bedő

A total of 96 winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.

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Maize cultivars (4 composites, 14 inbreds and 7 hybrids) cultivated in Punjab were characterized using a set of 70 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with a total of 199 alleles. Out of these, 67 markers produced polymorphic profiles, 3 were monomorphic. Eight SSR primers detected eight unique alleles in three genotypes. These unique SSR alleles provide an opportunity for unambiguous differentiation of the respective genotypes. SSR profiles were analyzed by using computer softwares NTSYS-pc and DARwin 5.0. Both of them classified the genotypes in four distinct groups.

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It has been claimed that the system that delivers the products of plant breeding reduces the diversity of cultivated varieties, leading to increased genetic vulnerability. The objective of our study was to monitor the temporal trends in genetic diversity over the past five decades among maize cultivars with the largest acreage in Central Europe. Thirty individuals of five prominent open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) from Central Europe, 85 maize hybrids of economic importance, and their dent and flint parental components were examined with 55 SSRs. The genetic variation within and among varieties decreased significantly during the five decades. The five OPVs contain numerous unique alleles that were absent from the elite flint pool. Consequently, OPVs could represent useful sources for broadening the genetic base of elite maize breeding germplasm.

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