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Author: Călin-Andrei Mihăilescu

Abstract  

The star system, or the astrocentric universe characteristic of mass culture, is analyzed through a sequence of three daily experiences which are common to the contemporary North American. In the wake of Nietzsche’s and Adorno’s critiques, this dispersed universe is shown to have emerged on the ruins of older systems of valuation and to have expanded via its insistent exposure to the uncritical mass and via the marginalization of otherness. In an astrocentric universe highbrow and lowbrow phenomena are exposed to each other to the point of non-distinction, which is instrumental in propelling the popCulture star in the sphere once occupied by high art. This article delivers, in philosophical prose, a combination of comparative and cultural studies, critical theory and cultural history.

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broader perspective, to analogical games (“analogical” understood as opposed to virtual or online). Although very different from online role-playing games, some traditional games feature vast universes that increase the player’s participation possibilities

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Summary

Even though the Mithraic epiclesis SAECULARIS has been explained with a link to the Ludi SAECULARES of 248, we prefer to elucidate it with the relief that we can observe between the two altars consecrated to MYTRAE SAECULARI, in Housesteads, in the civil parish of Bardon Mill in Northumberland, England, south of Broomlee.

Close to Hadrian's vallum, we can actually see a representation of Mithras, identified with Phanes, emerging from the cosmogonic egg with a zodiacal belt around him, lighting up the world. Concerning Jupiter (IOVI SEQULARI), moreover, on an Antoninianus of Claudius II “the Gothic”, this epiclesis expresses his responsibility for the kosmos in its cyclic eternity. Like Jupiter, Mithras is a sovereign of the universe.

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Summary

The external orientation of the Mithraic sanctuaries shows a great variety and heterogeneity. The internal orientation of the sanctuaries suggested by the cult image, however, shows a great homogenity and uniformity. The internal structure is organised on the possible axial line drawn from the entrance to the cult image, and continues beyond that. We can establish that the interior of a mithraeum is oriented along the ‘North-South – East-West’ frame of reference by the cult image.

The representation of the “Cosmos” in the sanctuary portrays only the visible, sensorial world. The known and organised “Cosmos” is the sanctuary itself, the ‘northern part’ of the Mithraic ‘Universe’ with its own inner coordinates.

The ‘Anti-Cosmos’, the Underworld, had been abolished from the ‘Mithraic Universe’, completely unmentioned by literary sources. After the vertical North-South and horizontal East-West orientation we can consider, that the cult image also as a partition, divides the ‘Mithraic Universe’ up into ‘northern’ and ‘southern’ parts. The ‘northern part’, as it is displayed, the ordered part of the ‘Universe’, or the “Cosmos” itself is represented by the shrine. Its opposite, the ‘southern part’, the disordered part of the ‘Universe’, or ‘Anti-Cosmos’ is absent on the cult image.

The Tauroctony prevents the specifically represented Underworld and its principles to manifest, creating the opportunity for the initiates to continue their eternal life in the living and organized part of the ‘Universe’, in the “Cosmos”.

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Authors: Vassily Nalimov, Jeanna Drogalina-Nalimov and Konstantin Zuyev

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Abstract  

Up to the 1960s the prevalent view of science was that it was a step-by-step undertaking in slow, piecemeal progression towards truth. Thomas Kuhn argued against this view and claimed that science always follows this pattern: after a phase of “normal” science, a scientific “revolution” occurs. Taking as a case study the transition from the static view of the universe to the Big Bang theory in cosmology, we appraised Kuhn’s theoretical approach by conducting a historical reconstruction and a citation analysis. As the results show, the transition in cosmology can be linked to many different persons, publications, and points in time. The findings indicate that there was not one (short term) scientific revolution in cosmology but instead a paradigm shift that progressed as a slow, piecemeal process.

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Abstract  

Isotopic compositions of the strange Xenon components-HL and the s-type xenon can be explained in a straightforward manner as due to the alteration of the isotopic composition of xenon caused by a combined effect of (a) mass-fractionation, (b) spallation and (c) stellar-temperature neutron-capture reactions. As much as 42.49% of total 136Xe ( 136Xe) found in the Allende diamond inclusions is 244Pu fission xenon (136fXe) and the trapped xenon is severely mass-fractionated in such a manner that the lighter xenon isotopes are systematically depleted relative to the heavier isotopes. The relative abundances of 130Xe and 132Xe in the trapped xenon component are both markedly enhanced indicating that it was irradiated with a total flux of 1.2·1023 n·cm-2 of stellar-temperature (10 keV) neutrons. The xenon found in the s-type xenon, on the other hand, resemble that of the atmospheric xenon irradiated with a total flux of about 6.0·1023 n·cm-2 of 10 keV neutrons. These results indicate that we are seeing here the effects of nuclear processes occurring inside of a star, such as the exploding supernova.

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Summary

A miniature relief representing the scene of tauroctony, i.e. Mithras killing the bull, is on display in the Archaeological Museum in Split. Despite its visibility, the relief has so far remained unpublished. It is therefore the aim of this article to provide the detailed description of the object, and to contextualize it within the broader framework of “small and miniature reproductions of the Mithraic icon”. Based on this, the original provenance and dating of the miniature relief are proposed. Furthermore, the relief is taken as a fine example of interconnectedness of social, material, and religious mobility in “globalizing Roman world”. The final part of the article discusses the psychological effectiveness of miniature Mithraic reliefs, suggesting their possible role as memory aids.

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