A new pressure DSC module (Mettler DSC27HP) and its abilities for vapor pressure determination in the range of subambient
pressure to 7 MPa are presented. To compare the new to an established method, vapor pressures of caffeine, naphthalene and
o-phenacetin have been determined both by pressure DSC and the Knudsen effusion cell method. These results, including the
derived heats of evaporation and heats of sublimation, are compared to literature values.
E37 on Thermal Measurements published a new test method 'Standard Test
Method for Volatility Rate by Thermogravimetry' in June 1999 with the
designation E 2008. This approach to assessing volatility utilizes an extension
of the pinhole technology previously employed by E37 for vapor pressure determinations
using differential scanning calorimetry (ASTM E 1782). After publication of
the test method E 2008, an Interlaboratory Study was undertaken to develop
a 'Precision and Bias' statement to be assigned with the test
method. This paper provides some background data that supports the claim that
E 2008 is generally insensitive to experimental conditions other than temperature.
The Interlaboratory Study showing the statistical review is also discussed.
Authors:U. Griesser, M. Szelagiewicz, U. Hofmeier, C. Pitt, and S. Cianferani
In order to determine the applicability of vapor pressure studies on polymorphic modifications, pairs of enantiotropically related modifications of caffeine, theophylline and carbamazepine were investigated. The studies were performed over a wide temperature range (71 to 191°C) and accordingly over a wide vapor pressure range (0.02 to 400 Pa) using an automatic instrument constructed on the basis of the gas saturation principle. This instrument enables an analytical determination of the main component and the impurities present by the chromatographic separation of the substances transported in the gas flow. Therefore, the real partial pressure of the main component can be measured. Due to the high precision of the applied method it was possible to determine partial pressure curves and the thermodynamic transition temperature — the point at which the vapor pressure of two crystal polymorphs is equal. The thermodynamic transition temperatures of caffeine and theophylline were determined to be 136 and 232°C, respectively. These values are in agreement with experimental or calculated values derived from DSC investigations but are more reliable. Vapor pressure measurements of carbamazepine are only meaningful in the low temperature range due to its decomposition at high temperatures. The thermodynamics, advantages and limits of vapor pressure determinations of polymorphic modifications are discussed.