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The evolution of individual anthocyanins during vinification of Merlot and Pinot Noir grapes was studied using two different winemaking procedures for each grape variety. Additionally, the effect of the applied vinification on the anthocyanin composition of the obtained wine at the end of maceration and wine aged 6 months was investigated and compared with the anthocyanin patterns of the original grape. The dynamics of the extraction process was monitored daily during maceration by analysing the anthocyanins in the must using HPLC. The results showed that the anthocyanin composition of young wines was different from that of the grapes. The proportions of malvidin-3- glucoside and malvidin-acetate were higher in wines than in the grape skins, but this was not the case for malvidin coumarate. Application of different vinification procedures to the same raw material resulted in wines with similar anthocyanin patterns. However, the anthocyanin profiles changed with the ageing of the wines.

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Kalmár, Z. P., Miklósy, É., Pölös, V. & Kerényi, Z. (1999): Les effets de la qualité des grains d'aszú et les différents modes de vinification sur la constitution des vins d'aszú de Tokaj-Hegyalja. Oenologie 99. 6 e Symposium International d

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Analysis of trace elements and ratios of stable isotopes have been shown to be a valuable tool to discriminate wines according to their region of origin. Several factors, such as environmental contamination, agricultural practices, climatic changes, and vinification processes may change markedly the multielement composition of the wine and may endanger the relationship between wine and soil composition. This article brings some information about environmental and technological aspects of wine geographical authentication and gives a review about using trace elements, isotope ratios analysis, multivariate statistical methods and some joint techniques for these purposes.

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RIBÉREAU-GAYON, P., DUBORDIEU, D., DONÉCHE, B. & LONVAUD, A. (2000): Handbook of enology. Vol. 1. The microbiology of wine and vinifications. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 255-267. Handbook of enology

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Flavour profiling by descriptive analysis of apple wines fermented with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and natural sources of fermentation with or without nitrogen source addition was carried out. Out of 45 attributes used, 38 were found significant and were employed for further evaluation. Generally, the intensities of many of the descriptors in the apple wines were low. Both the natural sources of fermentation (NSF) imparted different flavours notes like lactic, sharp, acetic and fruity to the wine. “W” strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave wines with higher astringency and phenolic flavours, ethyl acetate like, acetaldehyde like flavour, UCD 505 and UCD 522 fermentated wines were peculiar for more ethanolic, sweety and bitter taste, whereas UCD 595 imparted more phenolic, astringent, sour, and ethanolic flavour notes to the wines. The addition of nitrogen source (irrespective of source of fermentation) reduced the development of some flavours considered undesirable (acetic, amyl alcoholic, fusel alcoholic, vegetative). Addition of nitrogen source enhanced the intensity of some other flavour attributes like ethanolic and phenolic in the wines. Due to the same vinification practices (except for the source of fermentation) some modifications in the flavour attributes of apple wines fermented by natural source of fermentation were recorded. The flavour profile of wines fermented by different sources of fermentation, was also reflected in the chemical characteristics examined. Besides higher fermentability, the addition of nitrogen source also affected the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and consequently, their flavour profile. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the means of flavour scores generated from flavour profiling, weakly separated and characterized the wines fermented by different sources of fermentation but did not differentiate the wines fermented with or without nitrogen source. It is concluded that the descriptors described here can characterize apple wine of different quality attributes. The list of descriptors, concentration of standards and details of the technique have also been described.

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Strawberry fruits of three cultivars viz. Camarosa, Chandler and Doughlas were used to prepare wine by four different methods (control, thermovinification, fermented on the skin and carbonic maceration). Physico-chemical characteristics of the cultivar Camarosa were rated superior to Chandler and Doughlas. The must from the fruits fermented on the skin gave the highest rate of fermentation and ethanol content. The application of various treatments improved the fermentation behaviour of treated strawberry musts compared to the control as revealed by their physico-chemical characteristics. Thermovinified wines had many desirable characteristics such as more total phenols, esters and colour with comparable amount of higher alcohols, volatile acids, ethyl alcohol, sugars and anthocyanin. The carbonic maceration resulted in wines with more alcohol, higher pH, lower acidity, lesser higher alcohol and volatile acids than other wines. Fermented on the skin treated wines were typical for higher amount of anthocyanin, lower reducing sugar and total sugar than the control wines. Thermovinified wines, irrespective of cultivars, scored the highest with respect to most of the sensory quality characteristics. Wines from Camarosa cultivar registered many desirable characteristics such as esters, optimum acidity, more red colour units with comparable contents of alcohol and total phenols, while Chandler cultivar had higher amount of ethyl alcohol, more phenols, anthocyanin than other cultivars. Some of these differences are correlated with their initial characteristics, while others have been influenced by method of vinification. Based on the physico-chemical and sensory qualities, the wines from cv. Camarosa was rated the best, though the wines of all the cultivars were acceptable.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Letitia Oprean, Enikő Gaspar, Ecaterina Lengyel and V. Cristea

-Dupuy, M. L., Strehaiano, P. (1996) La fermentation alcoolique en vinification: observations cinétiques et physiologie. Rev. Francaise d'Oenologie 159 , 19-23. La fermentation alcoolique en vinification: observations cinétiques et

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) 1986 C. Ţârdea, Gh. Sârbu, A. Ţârdea , Tratat de vinificatie (Handbook of Vinification), Ion Ionescu de la Brad Publishing House, Jassy

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Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Dubourdieu, D., Donèche, B. & Lonvaud, A. (2000): Handbook of enology. The microbiology of wine and vinifications . Vol. I. Wiley. West Sussex, England, pp. 49–57. Lonvaud A

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): Extraction of phenolics and changes in antioxidant activity of red wines during vinification. J. agric. Fd Chem. , 49 , 5797–5808. Crozier A. Extraction of phenolics and changes

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