The line from Bonfini's Decades used as a motto emphasizes the triumphal meaning of using marble, bronze and inscription together. For using red marble (replacing porphyry) there had been a tradition in Hungary since the late 12th century, when the Porta speciosa of the Esztergom Cathedral was built. The Bakócz Chapel of the same cathedral stands, as for the red marble, in the same tradition, but its inscription, executed in inlayed capital letters in guilt bronze, corresponds to another tradition too. Bronze letters represent a tradition of Antiquity which was kept by early (Salerno, San Vincenzo in Volturno, Corvey) and later (Bari, St-Denis, Westminster Abbey) mediaeval monuments, mainly in Italy. This tradition in Italy seems to have been the main source for the epigraphic style of the Esztergom Chapel.
„Mozdulatlan (érinthetetlen) béke?” Ambivalens szókapcsolat, ha a béke-eszmény császárkori megítélésére gondolunk. Vajon az Aeneis minden olvasója számára teljességgel magától értetődött-e, hogy Aeneas késői unokái ne habozzanak virtusuk „tettekben megnyilvánuló kiteljesítésével”? (Aen. VI 808.) Az a bizonyos cupido proferendi imperii - minden áron! - aligha tekinthető „meggyőző politikai vezérelvnek” (E. Koestermann). És ha nincs is mód a virtus gyakorlására, és bele kell törődni a béke „érinthetetlenségébe”? A pax Romana-t nemcsak Seneca „diszkreditálta”; mások sem ítélték vitathatatlannak. A tárgyalt szöveghelyek Tacitus gondolatvilágának megközelítésében is segítenek.
„Mozdulatlan (érinthetetlen) béke?” Ambivalens szókapcsolat, ha a béke-eszmény császárkori megítélésére gondolunk. Vajon az Aeneis minden olvasója számára teljességgel magától értetődött-e, hogy Aeneas késôi unokái ne habozzanak virtusuk „tettekben megnyilvánuló kiteljesítésével”? (Aen. VI 808.) Az a bizonyos cupido proferendi imperii — minden áron! — aligha tekinthetô „meggyôzô politikai vezérelvnek” (E. Koestermann). És ha nincs is mód a virtus gyakorlására, és bele kell törôdni a béke „érinthetetlenségébe”? A pax Romana-t nemcsak Seneca „diszkreditálta”; mások sem ítélték vitathatatlannak. A tárgyalt szöveghelyek Tacitus gondolatvilágának megközelítésében is segítenek.
The author tries to clarify the authentic human anthropology of St. Thomas, considering the "per excessum" interpretation of Hume and the "per defectum" valuation of the human emotions in stoicism. Thomas was referred to as "Doctor Angelicus" but he is also "Doctor Humanus". He applies the requirements of "recta ratio" and "virtus in medio" with respect to the role of human emotions, too. To the efficacy of "habitus operativus" he accepts the helping role of "disposition" as a type of inspiration. In this conception, "habitus entitativus", as the general state of health, is connected with the emotional forces of the soul, i.e. with the "passiones". The theological aspect of the feelings can be considered especially in relation to the inspirations of the Holy Spirit. This is the teaching of Sigmund Freud, too, but his "Libido" cannot obtain the joy of soul. The spiritual joy is the result of real happiness, or as Thomas puts it, "delectatio consequtur beatitudinem".
As bas-reliefs of a similar standard are not known in the early Bizantine world, the styles of the figures and the ornamental elements of the jug are compared to the relief works of other fields of art (silver toreutics, ebony carvings, plastic relief, mosaics), since they met the same ideological and aesthetic demands, which necessarily led to the same stylistic solutions
. The scenes are characteristically divided into isolated zones without the existence of a narrative contact. The isolated scenes represent combats between people and animals
in their pure dramatic appearances. This suspense is eased by the agility that can be read from the posture of the hunters. Yet they are hunting scenes and as antithetic combats they bear isolated effects on the spectators. The representation of the people and the animal is true to nature, they do not cover each other and thus they have strong contours and a more emphatic plasticity. Contrary to the individual scenes, the composition of the friezes on the Budakalász jug does not give a dynamic impression since the scale relations are diverse in the individual scenes. A definite aspiration to a formal abstraction can be felt in the composition of the friezes and the order of the scenes. The message is cyclically repeated in the cyclical iteration of the endless series of pictures. The hunter is not an everyday person: he is a hero
over the difficulties of life.
The paper discusses the theoretical and practical issues encountered during the preparation of the Hungarian edition of Leon Battista Alberti's 1435/36 treatise On Painting. It considers each of the themes the humanist author deemed important to discuss in respect of the theory of art and a painter's learning. The first theme is the basically rational theory of pictorial creation: perspective. In connection to the new concept of space that evolved in painters' practice at the time, this means a geometrical abstraction of vision and a method based on this, which implied a total break with the mediaeval optical-epistemological study of perspective. The second subject is the work of art. Alberti divides painting in three parts, namely: drawing, composition and lighting (colouring). The new element in the division is composition, which is an aesthetic category of rhetorical origin. In his theory of colours, Alberti, in a rather individual way, differentiates between four primary colours – red, green, grey, blue – in connection with the four basic elements – fire, water, earth, air –, making it have a speculative and mediaeval character. Finally, the third theme is the artist himself. According to Alberti's theory the painter is well-versed in the liberal arts, a learned intellectual, a pictor doctus. His knowledge is complemented by virtue. In Alberti's view the most important values for a painter are reason (ratio) and virtue (virtù). The Hungarian edition attempts to resolve the problem of the authentic text of the treatise by creating a kind of synthesis between the Latin and the Italian version.
The theme of light is not central in Aquinas' thought. He speaks about it when the opportunity arises, especially when he is concerned with the creation of the world and vision. When he is concerned with light, Thomas appears as the magister, Aristotle's follower, an alert reader of the sacra pagina and of the sancti's works. He clearly adheres to the physics and cosmology of Aristotle and solves the old equivocation according to which light is part both of the sensible and intelligible and divine: proprie light is the one, and the only one, with the help of which we can see through they eyes of our body. Light is the medium through which the sun and the other heavenly bodies influence our world, it is connected to the natural warmth and favours of life. It is neither a body nor a form or substance or a substantial form, but it is the qualitas activa of the sun and of the other self-shining bodies. But as light has a virtus manifestativa, we can speak of light even metaphorice in all the cases in which we have a form of sight or knowledge. For that Thomas can write: 'Divina sapienta lux dicitur, prout in puro actu cognitionis consistit.'
When scrutinizing the concept of authority, presenting the basic definition of auctoritas, the capacity of increase and augmentation, Hannah Arendt appositely quotes the relevant passage by Cicero, according to which the task of founding the state, the human community, as well as the preservation of what has already been founded, highly resembles the function of the numen, the divine operation (Cicero, De re publica 1, 7. "Neque enim est ulla res in qua propius ad deorum numen virtus accedat humana, quam civitatis aut condere novas aut conservare conditas."); and in connection with this, she states that, from this aspect, the Romans regarded religious and political activity as being almost identical. The paper will examine various aspects of the numen, one of the most important phenomena of Roman religion (I.), its etymology (II.), the institution of the triumphus, a phenomenon seeming to be relevant from this point of view (III.), then the concept of numen Augusti, incorporating these elements of the religious sphere into the legitimation of power. (IV.)