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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Z. Áy
,
Z. Kerényi
,
A. Takács
,
M. Papp
,
I. Petróczi
,
R. Gáborjányi
,
D. Silhavy
,
J. Pauk
, and
Z. Kertész

Perry, K.L., Kolb, L.F., Sammons, B., Lawson, C., Cisar, G., Ohm, H. 2000. Yield effects of barley yellow dwarf virus in soft red winter wheat. Phytopathology 90 :1043

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
H. Frickmann
,
S. Jungblut
,
T. O. Hirche
,
U. Groß
,
M. Kuhns
, and
Andreas Erich Zautner

2006 Virus infection in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring ventilation Intensive Care Med 32 7 1022 – 1029

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Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is the causal agent of a widespread disease that affects vineyards. Since it is difficult to culture viruses, the availability of an easy and efficient method of virus maintenance in the laboratory would be of interest to virologists. The objective of this research was to determine an adequate culture medium that promotes callus growth and permits the preservation of GFLV on Vitis vinifera tissue. Fragments of in vitro cultured leaves (25 mm 2 ), originated from Cabernet Sauvignon positive for GFLV, were cultivated on a Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium, and the callus was monitored for the presence of GFLV every two weeks using ELISA. Higher 2,4-D concentration induced a higher growth, particularly when combined with a low BA concentration. The medium enriched with 1.0 ppm of 2,4-D combined with 0.5 ppm of BA showed the best result, with the callus area reaching more than 250 mm 2 after 8 weeks in culture. ELISA absorbance observed on callus tissues during the whole period was, at least, three times higher than that observed on leaves positive for GFLV kept either in vivo or in vitro and more than 18 times higher than that of the negative control. Any remarkable difference in absorbance was recorded during the period of callus cultivation. It was concluded that the viral load on the callus was not affected during this time, suggesting that this kind of in vitro culture is an efficient method to preserve GFLV.

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Incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is on the rise and yet, despite decades of research, the exact ethology of the disease still remains a mystery. The autoimmune reaction, which ultimately leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, causing insulin deficiency and T1D, is a result of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Precisely, what are these environmental factors? Current popular opinion implies these pathogens, such as viruses, especially human enteroviruses, are a triggering factor. On the other hand, the hygiene hypotheses states in which the increase of autoimmune diseases, such as T1D, can, in fact, be explained by the decrease of infections, and infectious agents, more like viruses, actually serve as a defense mechanism, therefore, protect us from developing certain autoimmune diseases. Additionally, the relationship between the gut microbiota and autoimmune diseases is currently gaining increased interest including relative research now demonstrating how the guts immune system plays a crucial role in the development of autoimmune diseases. This literature review aims to evaluate these three popular suspects: Viral infections, hygiene and gut microbiota, in relation to their potential triggering effect on T1D and their close relationship to one another.

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The biological properties of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain Oregon C24V were studied after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of pregnant sows. This virus strain is widely used in Hungary for immunising cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). Based upon the results of the clinical, gross pathological, histopathological and virological examinations it can be established that the given strain caused asymptomatic infection and serological conversion in sows that were in the second third of gestation. The virus caused clinically apparent disease in some of the piglets born at term, which indicates that it had crossed the placenta. More than half (57%) of the live-born piglets died within 60 days of birth. The sows and their progeny did not shed the virus. BVDV infection has great differential diagnostic importance in pigs, as classical swine fever (CSF) virus strains of reduced virulence cause similar clinical symptoms and gross and histopathological changes.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Nadja Fodor
,
S. K. Dube
,
I. Fodor
,
E. Horváth
,
Edith Nagy
,
V. N. Vakharia
, and
Altancsimeg Rencendorsh

Direct DNA inoculations were used to determine the efficacy of gene immunisation of chickens to elicit protective immune responses against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Thevp2 gene of IBDV strains GP40 and D78, and thevp2-vp4-vp3 encoding segment of strain D78 were cloned in an expression vector which consisted of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early enhancer and promoter, adenovirus tripartite leader sequences and SV40 polyadenylation signal. For purification of vaccine-quality plasmid DNA fromE. coli, an effective method was developed. Chickens were vaccinated by inoculation of DNA by two routes (intramuscular and intraperitoneal). Two weeks later, chickens were boosted with DNA, and at 2 weeks post-boost, they were challenged with virulent IBDV strain. Low to undetectable levels of IBDV-specific antibodies and no protection were observed with DNA encoding VP2. However, plasmids encoding VP2-VP4-VP3 induced IBDV-specific antibodies and protection in the chickens. DNA immunisation opens a new approach to the development of gene vaccines for chickens against infectious diseases.

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Introduction COVID-19 pandemic finds its roots in Wuhan (China) in December 2019, a peculiar illness causing pneumonia. Such mysterious pneumonia cases were investigated to be caused by a novel virus (2019-nCoV) of family Coronaviridae [ 1 ]. Severe

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References 1 Dick, G. W., Kitchen, S. F., Haddow, A. J.: Zika virus. I. Isolations and serological specificity. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1952

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
H. Frickmann
,
S. Jungblut
,
T. O. Hirche
,
U. Groß
,
M. Kuhns
, and
Andreas Erich Zautner

Med 311 26 1653 – 1658 . 15. D. Wat 2008 The role of respiratory viruses in

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors:
R. Ahmadvand
,
A. Takács
,
J. Taller
,
I. Wolf
, and
Z. Polgár

Adams, M. J., Antoniw, J. F., Bar-Joseph, M., Brunt, A. A., Candresse, T., Foster, G. D., Martelli, G. P., Milne, R. G., Fauquet, C. M. (2004): The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular

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