Authors:M. Pluta, J. Morawiec, M. Kryszewski, and T. Kowalewski
The phase structure and dynamic mechanical properties of three polypropylene/polystyrene (PP/PS) systems of similar composition but various dispersion of the minor PS component have been examined. Two different PP/PS systems were prepared by polymerization of styrene (ST) molecularly dispersed in PP matrices (with the same initial structure) under the conditions leading to a linear or crosslinked PS component. The third PP/PS system has been prepared blending the homopolymers in the molten state. Studies of materials containingin situ polymerized PS revealed nanoscale phase separation of PS (atomic force microscopy) and pointed to the presence of physical entanglements between PS and non-crystalline phase of PP (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis). The PS component in material prepared by melt mixing appeared to be completely phase-separated into micron-sized domains. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed also the dependence of viscoelastic behavior of the PP/PS systems on dispersion of the PS inclusions and on the nature of the interface.
Authors:Riza Wirawan, S. M. Sapuan, Yunus Robiah, and Abdan Khalina
-filled PVC, especially sugarcane bagasse-filled PVC, has not been widely discussed.
In this study, elastic and viscoelasticproperties of sugarcane bagasse-filled PVC composites were determined by means of three-point bending flexural tests and DMTA
new epoxy polyester materials. This paper presents the studies on the thermal and viscoelasticproperties of novel epoxy-dicyclopentadiene-terminated polyesters-styrene copolymers. The influence of the structure of polyester and styrene content on the
Authors:Nalinda Almeida, Stanley Hirschi, Anja Mueller, and Leela Rakesh
Viscoelastic properties of κ-carrageenan in saline solution at various concentrations and pH were investigated by dynamic
rheological techniques, viscosity, elasticity measurements, and IR spectrometry. The viscosity and elasticity at low concentrations
of κ-carrageenan do not depend on pH, confirming that κ-carrageenan is in a disordered conformation. At 0.7% κ-carrageenan,
the disordered confirmation transforms into an ordered helical confirmation with the possibility of weak-type gel formation.
The transformation is also confirmed by dynamic measurements of loss and storage moduli. Furthermore, at this concentration,
the viscosity and elasticity are highly dependent on pH. At higher concentrations of NaCl (0.5 M) at some pHs, we observed
that storage moduli is greater than loss moduli for the entire frequency region. Hence, there is a possibility of structure
transformation from weak-type gel to a somewhat intermediate gel. The lowest viscosity and elasticity were obtained at extreme
pH, confirming that there are structural changes occurring at these pHs due to hydrolysis. This is confirmed by IR data.
Authors:H. Hatakeyama, T. Yoshida, and T. Hatakeyama
Cellulose acetate-based polycaprolactones (CAPCL's) were synthesized by the polymerization of -caprolactone which was initiated by non-substituted OH group in cellulose acetate. The CL/OH (mol mol–1) ratios of the CAPCL's were changed from 2 to 20. Thermal and viscoelastic properties of the CAPCL sheets were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Glass transition, cold crystallization and melting were determined by DSC. Dynamic modules (E'), dynamic loss modules (E'') and tan were measured in a temperature range from –150 to 50°C by DMA. Apparent activation energy of a dispersion was calculated from the frequency dependency of E'' peak temperature. It was found that the main chain motion of both CA and PCL is observed in a CL/OH ratio from 0 to 10 mol mol–1. However, when CL/OH ratio exceeds 10 mol mol–1, the crystalline region which is rearranged by the PCL chain association is observed and only the main chain motion of PCL can be detected.
The influence of chemical modification of unsaturated polyesters on viscoelastic properties and thermal behavior of styrene
copolymers has been investigated by DMA and TG analyses. Chemical modification of unsaturated polyesters obtained in polycondensation
of cyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (THPA), maleic anhydride (MA) and suitable glycol: diethylene glycol (DEG) or
triethylene glycol (TEG) was performed using 38–40% peracetic acid. It allowed to selective and successful oxidation of carbon-carbon
double bonds in unsaturated polyesters giving modified unsaturated polyesters/unsaturated epoxypolyesters/containing both
carbon-carbon double bonds in polyester chain and new functional groups-epoxy groups in cycloaliphatic rings. Both unsaturated
polyesters and unsaturated epoxypolyesters were used as a component of styrene copolymers cured with different hardeners.
It has been demonstrated that the use of modified unsaturated polyesters as a component of styrene copolymers allowed obtaining
more stiffness and more cross-linked network structure compared to styrene copolymers based on unmodified polyesters. The
higher values of storage modulus, glass transition temperatures and better thermal stability for styrene copolymers based
on unsaturated epoxypolyesters were obtained.
Authors:M. Takahashi, M. Iijima, K. Kimura, T. Hatakeyama, and H. Hatakeyama
The viscoelasticity and thermal properties of aqueous
solutions of blended xanthan gum (XA) with chitosan were investigated in order
to study the electrostatic interaction established between two polysaccharides.
Storage modulus G’, loss modulus G” and zero shear rate viscosity ηO
attain a maximum at a chitosan concentration Cmax.
The above results indicate that the junction between XA and chitosan is formed
in a concentration range lower than Cmax
and the viscoelasticity of systems increases with increasing concentration.
In a concentration range higher than Cmax,
junction formation may not occur effectively since the excess amount of chitosan
completely screens anions of XA. The chain rigidity of XA decreases by the
screening of the repulsive interaction between anions on XA chains. The ineffective
junction formation and the decrease of XA chain rigidity may cause the decrease
of viscoelasticity of systems with increasing concentration. The value of Cmax decreases with increasing
molecular mass of chitosan. From melting enthalpy of the above system measured
by DSC, the amount of non-freezing water (Wnf)
was evaluated. Wnf
shows a minimum at the concentration Cmax.
This fact suggests that hydrophobic fields increased by junction structure
formation through ion-complexation between XA and chitosan molecules.
The dough characteristics of fifty popular Indian hexaploid wheat varieties were assessed by testing various rheological properties using a Brabender Farinograph and an Extensograph. These studies were aimed at evaluating the flour quality and functionality of the wheat dough. Based on the rheological dough properties of 50 Indian hexaploid wheat varieties it was recommended that 13 wheats could be useful for blending purposes, 31 varieties could be used for both bread and chapatti making, and the remaining 6 wheats were found suitable for biscuit making. The outcome of the experiments will be useful for plant breeders, millers and bakers.
Authors:Mariana Cristea, C. Gaina, Daniela Ionita, and Viorica Gaina
Polyaminobismaleimides (PAMBI) with diphenyl methane, diphenyl ether and hexamethylene segments were synthesized according
to Michael type addition reaction. The modification of PAMBIs with 2-glycidyl-phenyl-ether (GPE) was performed in order to
ameliorate the toughness of the products. Dynamic mechanical analysis allowed the study of the processes that concur in the
material through curing by tracking the storage modulus (E′) and loss factor (tanδ) changes. The small drop of E′ with increasing temperature in the glass transition region argues for crosslinked structures. The viscoelastic behavior
revealed complex processes, i.e., overlapping of glass transition temperature range with intra-and inter-crosslinking.
Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide alternative copolymer, poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC), and the end-capped PPC with maleic anhydride were investigated by means of TG and DMA. A master curve of the storage modulus vs. frequency can be deduced from the isochronal curves. Physical parameters of both plain and MA end-capped PPC were discussed. The results showed that for maleic anhydride (MA) end-capping PPC, an improvement of its thermal stability and mechanical properties accompanied with some modifications of the viscoelastic behavior were obtained.