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The goal of the present investigation was to determine the precision of goal-directed hand movements in the lack of visual information. The movement amplitude and direction was examined under different experimental conditions. Subjects were ten female and ten male university students. The motor test was drawing 10 cm long straight line and 24 cm long zigzag line in four different experimental conditions. 1) The drawing with open eyes was followed immediately with drawing with closed eyes. 2) The drawing was executed from memory in the lack of visual information. 3) Drawing with restricted amplitude or direction. 4) Drawing with verbal feedback. The errors of the target distance and the lateral deviations from the target were different under the different experimental conditions. The largest errors and underestimation of the target distance occurred in drawing horizontal straight line with closed eyes. No statistically significant gender differences were found. It is concluded that the practice, adjustment of single movement parameter to the target, and the verbal feedback assist better the accuracy of unseen goal-directed hand movement than the recent visual memory.

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Aggressive behavior of white-eye mutant crickets was investigated and compared with that of wild-type crickets. In the dark, wild-type pairs performed long-lasting fights with significantly higher aggressive levels compared to those in the light. In contrast, fights between two white-eye mutants were not significantly different with those between two wild-type crickets both in duration and the aggressive levels. Ethograms of aggressive behavior showed that the mutants could show typical sequentially escalating fight with the same behavioral categories as the wild-type crickets. These results indicate that the white-eye mutants are able to express normal aggressive behavior.

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The objective of this study was to prove the hypothesis that kinaesthetic sensations, without visual or verbal guidance, give sufficient information to produce predictive handgrip forces. The ability of 70 girls and 70 boys aged 11 to 17 years to produce predicted static handgrip force was examined. The subjects were requested to produce 50% of their individual maximum handgrip force and maintain it for 2 seconds without visual control. Ten trials were done first by the right-hand and then by the left-hand. The maximum grip strength increased parallel with age, but significant differences were found between both the right and the left-hand, and the genders. Close correlations were found between the desired and the exerted forces. The differences between the desired forces and the exerted forces produced by the fifth trials were significantly smaller than that of the first trials. The verbal information about each exerted force contributed to the learning with right-hand since it caused a further decrease in the difference between the desired force and the exerted force. In contrast, the learning with left-hand was not enhanced by verbal feedback. These results suggest that kinaesthetic feedback information from the hand plays an effective role in learning to produce predicted grip strengths without visual and verbal information.

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Ángyán L, Téczely T, Ángyán Z, Petőfi Á: Changes in the amplitude and direction of goal directed hand movements in the lack of visual information. Acta Physiol. Hung. 93(2–3), 107–116 (2006

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In recent decades, audio description has been approached from a number of different perspectives. However, its cognitive dimension has not yet been explored. Reception studies are still scarce and little is known about users’ understanding of scripts, their preferences or their needs. This paper constitutes an attempt to shed light on the former by investigating the mental processing that leads blind and visually impaired recipients to understand audio described products. Memory, which dominates the cognitive processes that enhance comprehension, is the focus of this paper. Through an initial description of its components and basic operation, the role of sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory are analysed in the context of the phases of reception, processing and comprehension of new data. This general framework is then applied to the viewing of films in order to explore how spectators turn images and sound into meaningful information. Finally, the case of audio described products (where there is no image available to users) is investigated. Taking into account the nature of audio description, whereby visual information is conveyed to visually impaired users via complex auditory information, some relevant findings from cognitive psychology, media studies and education are presented. Specifically, attention is paid to research dealing with auditory as opposed to visual information processing in terms of cognitive effort and data recall. In addition, the common belief that blind listeners have a better memory for auditorily presented materials than their sighted counterparts is examined. The implications that these prior findings could have for audio description is then discussed with the objective of highlighting the potential contribution that an interdisciplinary approach which combines both translation studies and cognition could provide.

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Amblyopia is a visual disorder caused by an anomalous early visual experience. It has been suggested that suppression of the visual input from the weaker eye might be a primary underlying mechanism of the amblyopic syndrome. However, it is still an unresolved question to what extent neural responses to the visual information coming from the amblyopic eye are suppressed during binocular viewing. To address this question we measured event-related potentials (ERP) to foveal face stimuli in amblyopic patients, both in monocular and binocular viewing conditions. The results revealed no difference in the amplitude and latency of early components of the ERP responses between the binocular and fellow eye stimulation. On the other hand, early ERP components were reduced and delayed in the case of monocular stimulation of the amblyopic eye as compared to the fellow eye stimulation or to binocular viewing. The magnitude of the amblyopic effect measured on the ERP amplitudes was comparable to that found on the fMRI responses in the fusiform face area using the same face stimuli and task conditions. Our findings showing that the amblyopic effects present on the early ERP components in the case of monocular stimulation are not manifested in the ERP responses during binocular viewing suggest that input from the amblyopic eye is completely suppressed already at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing when stimuli are viewed by both eyes.

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of kinaesthetic feedback in the control of goal-directed movements. The subjects were qualified basketball and handball players compared to weightlifters as controls. The body measures and the general motor tests verified fit physical condition of the subjects, and detected no sign that would disturb the execution of special motor tests. The special motor tests were free-throw shootings with basketball to the basket, free shootings with handball to a rectangular frame, zigzag dribbling with basketball to 14 m among traffic cones 2 m apart, and stopping at a mark after running to 10 m. These tests were performed both with open eyes and closed eyes. The results of all special motor tests decreased significantly in the lack of visual information. Furthermore, in contrast to the significantly different results obtained from the three different groups with open eyes, these groups produced equally minor results with closed eyes. It is concluded that the practice of goal-directed movement, learned under visual guidance, does not make the kinaesthetic feedback able to compensate the lack of visual input.

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of kinaesthetic feedback in the control of goal-directed movements. The subjects were qualified basketball and handball players compared to weightlifters as controls. The body measures and the general motor tests verified fit physical condition of the subjects, and detected no sign that would disturb the execution of special motor tests. The special motor tests were free-throw shootings with basketball to the basket, free shootings with handball to a rectangular frame, zigzag dribbling with basketball to 14 m among traffic cones 2 m apart, and stopping at a mark after running to 10 m. These tests were performed both with open eyes and closed eyes. The results of all special motor tests decreased significantly in the lack of visual information. Furthermore, in contrast to the significantly different results obtained from the three different groups with open eyes, these groups produced equally minor results with closed eyes. It is concluded that the practice of goal-directed movement, learned under visual guidance, does not make the kinaesthetic feedback able to compensate the lack of visual input.

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The study deals with the role of Slavic antiquities in the age of national revivals and with the forging of such antiquities. It discusses the subject of Slavic antiquities and forgeries in Central Europe, bringing in the cultural context of Western Europe as well.

‘Antiquity’ is understood to mean a kind of medium that conveyed textual or visual information. The collecting of antiquities became fashionable during the first decades of the 19th century and led to the need for antiquities to be described and categorized. In turn, antiquities served as corpuses for the shaping of modern national cultural canons. It contends that these artefacts, authentic and forged alike, played an important role in moulding the cultural canons of the Slavic nations in Central Europe.

An antiquity's canonical value stemmed from its age most of all and an antiquity needed to be linked as specifically as possible to the history and culture of a given nation. The worth of an antiquity was further boosted when it could be connected with historical personages of great significance. Finally, the more mysterious the history of an antiquity, the greater the degree of speculation permissible in regard to interpretations of it.

A forged antiquity is basically an objectification informed by the forger's thinking and imagination. A forgery bears not just marks characteristic of past times but also marks of the forger and those of the time in which the forgery was made. It is something which calls an entire system into question, thereby causing bewilderment. From this perplexity, only one phenomenon can derive benefit, namely, the national culture. Important among the motives for the forging of Slavic antiquities was the circumstance that framers of canons felt that the structures of their national cultures were incomplete. Researching the reasons for the forging, the study points out structural gaps in the canons in Central Europe as well as traumas stemming from forgeries. Using four examples taken from Kollár's oeuvre (the Poison Tree of Java, the Slavic idols of Prillwitz, the Queen's Court and Green Mountain manuscripts and Derzhavin's poem God in Japanese and Chinese translation) it presents the most common motives behind Slavic forgeries along with the kinds of fake most frequently encountered; it also shows the processes by which forgeries were exposed for what they were.

These examples show that when Kollár worked with antiquities and fake antiquities, playing the imposter and pecuniary advantage were very far from him. On the other hand, as a philologist he became a prisoner of contemporary national canonical and emblematic structures.

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Pszichológia
Authors: Brigitta Tóth, Roland Boha, Eszter Kormann, Zsófia Anna Gaál, Anikó Kónya, and Márk Molnár

Absztrakt

A vizsgálat célja az emlékezeti agyi funkcionális kapcsolathálózat életkortól függő emlékezeti teljesítményhez és terheléshez köthető elemzése volt. A kísérlet során idős és fiatal kísérleti személyek számítógép képernyőn bemutatott három vagy öt négyzet helyét és színét memorizálták. Az emlékezeti teljesítményt felismerési helyzetben teszteltük. Az EEG adatokat az emlékezeti fenntartás periódusában agyi területek közötti gamma fázisszinkronizáció (phase lag index) elemzése mellett a gráf-elméleten alapuló komplex hálózat elemzéssel is vizsgáltuk. Az idős kísérleti személyek teljesítménye a fiatal felnőttekhez képest csökkent mind a három, illetve öt elem felismerése során. Nehéz feltétel esetében az időskori teljesítménycsökkenés nagyobb mértékű volt. A parietális és temporális területeken a gamma oszcilláció szinkronizációja a vizuális információ rövid távú emlékezetben történő fenntartásának folyamatával van összefüggésben. Az idős személyek a fiatal kísérleti csoporthoz képest csökkent parietális szinkronizációval és az emlékezeti terhelés hatására specifikus temporális szinkronizáció-növekedés hiányával jellemezhetők. A komplex funkcionális hálózati elemzés alapján igazolható, hogy az emlékezeti terhelés hatására növekedik a lokálisan szegregált információfeldolgozás mértéke. A megtanulandó elemek számának növelésével ugyanakkor a hálózat optimálisabbá szerveződése is kimutatható. Az idős életkorra jellemző emlékezeti deficit hátterében feltételezhetően az információ frissítéséhez köthető területspecifikus gamma szinkronizációs válasz csökkenése áll. Eredményeink alapján a gamma oszcilláció területspecifikus szinkronizációjának kiemelkedő funkcionális jelentősége van az információ-specifikus reprezentáció fenntartásában.

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