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Eucharistic references in the representations of saints constitute a relatively unexplored segment within the iconography of the Holy Sacrament. This article analyses a number of hagiographical compositions from the Late Gothic wall paintings of Transylvania, which seem to carry eucharistic connotations, either through explicit references to the Sacrament (in the form of a monstrance, a chalice or host-shaped bread) or through subtler allusions to the sacrificial Body of Christ present in the Eucharist. The fact that most of these images are located in the sanctuaries of churches and are typically associated with other, more straightforward eucharistic imagery suggests conscious choices on the part of the inventors of the iconographic programs in adapting the subject matter of the wall paintings to the function of the given liturgical space.

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Abstract  

Mortars taken from the walls of three historical buildings in Seville: Pond of Patio de las Doncellas in Real Alcazar of Seville, the Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas and the Church of El Salvador were investigated. The techniques employed were thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, FTIR, SEM with EDAX, Bernard calcimeter, granulometry, mercury intrusion porosimetry and mechanical strength tests. The majority of the studied mortars consist of calcite and silica. Gypsum was detected in samples of four mortars from the Santa Maria de las Cuevas Monastery and two from the El Salvador Church, whose samples were taken from the upper layers of the walls, but gypsum was not detected in the internal mortars layers. Only in two of the samples of the Monastery, the presence of cellulosic material as an organic additive was detected. All the studied mortars could be regarded hydraulic, so much by results from ratios between mass loss due to CO2 and H2O, hydraulic module and assays of compressive strength. The values obtained by these three techniques are related, providing good agreements between them. These results give useful information that aids in understanding the technology of historic mortars, and how to plan the restoration of these wall paintings.

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La Transylvanie s’est toujours trouvée à la croisée de l’Orient et de l’Occident. Dans le domaine de l’architecture religieuse, les années 1400, sous le règne de Sigismond du Luxembourg, les influences croisées ont été particulièrement riches, à travers les styles et techniques du Trecento et du gothique international, d’une part, et de l’art byzantin, d’autre part. En s’appuyant sur les recherches archéologiques et restaurations réalisées récemment, Zsombor Jékely établit un état des lieux et propose quelques hypothèses sur les échanges entre ateliers, tout en abordant la question des artistes réalisant des travaux pour des églises de l’autre confession.

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Abstract  

Roman ancient mortars have been widely studied, in connection with both diagnosis and application required for restoring. Thermoanalytical experiments performed on mortars from Pompeii and Herculaneum provided a very good understanding of the technology employed. The mortars from Pompeii were obtained by the proper mixing of lime and marble grains while mortars of Herculaneum by lime and silicates compounds. The position of the endothermic peak of calcite decomposition showed important variations in the different samples studied, which was assigned to the different crystallinity and particle sizes. Experiments under CO2 flow confirmed the presence of magnesium calcium carbonates.

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A preceding archeological excavation opened the way for the recovery of a larger building complex on Kossuth Square, Pécs. A wall-painting islet consisting of fragmented, but contigious pieces was unearthed, was a part of a larger painting decorating the northern wall of the room of the building complex in Severan times. The half man size figure surviving in bust was created with a brilliant brushwork using rich colours on a white background. The figure can be identified as Genius based on his attributes (the cornucopia and the crown) and the inscription of the painting. This paper discusses reconstruction possibilities of the wall-painting, painting techniques and materials applied, and deals with the possible functions of the room the wall-painting was unearthed in.

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Abstract  

The characterization of samples of painted plasters obtained from the archaeological site of Xochicalco, in Central Mexico, is presented. Elemental concentrations of the painted layers were obtained by using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The main crystalline structures of the samples are identified with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the microstructure is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The information resulting from the application of these three techniques is used to achieve more accurate values for the elemental concentrations. Additional data regarding organic components of the paintings was obtained through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Although the latter results only provided reliable data on inorganic components, they help to clarify the results from XRD and confirm those of SEM.

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A magyar királyok genealógiai ciklusa a leleszi premontrei kolostorkápolna középkori falképein

Genealogical Cycle of Hungarian Kings on the Medieval Frescoes at the Premonstratensian Abbey of Lelesz (Leles, Slovakia)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Zsombor Jékely

Abstract

The Premonstratensian monastery of Lelesz, dedicated to the Holy Cross, was founded by Boleszló, the bishop of Vác (1188–1212). Patronage, however, was given over to the king, and later rulers in turn handed patronage of the monastery to their subjects. In 1214, the act of foundation was reinforced and the church of Lelesz consecrated. With the king's support, Lelesz became one of the wealthiest monasteries and an important place of authentication (locus credibilis). The new church of the monastery was built around the middle of the 14th century; in 1362 magister Johannes from Buda was contracted to build the tower. The chapel of Saint Michael, standing to the north of the church, and originally probably also serving as the chapter house, was built under the prior Dominicus of the Pálóci family (1378–1403). Around 1400, this new chapel was fully decorated with wall paintings.

Much of the decoration – for example the frescoes of the vault – were destroyed when the chapel was re-vaulted in the 18th century. Still, a complete cycle of wall-paintings survives on the side walls of the chapel. On the south wall, there is a large, three-level image of the Last Judgment, with Christ in the mandorla dominating the scene, accompanied by the apostles on either side. In the lunettes of the north wall, two scenes can be detected: the one to the east depicts Saint Elisabeth of Hungary, while the other is possibly an image of Pope Urban V, in the company of cardinals. On the eastern walls of the chapel, apostles or prophets are depicted, framed by painted tracery.

The focus of the paper is the series of figures depicted on the two lower zones of the north wall. As can be determined with the help of fragmentary inscriptions, these figures represent the kings of Hungary, starting from King Saint Stephen. The inscription gives the names of rulers and the number of years they ruled. The cycle is fragmentary, so we do not know exactly how many kings were depicted, but there is enough space for all the Hungarian sovereigns up until the then-current ruler, Sigismund (1387–1437). Such a cycle is unique from the territory of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Best parallel is provided by the cycle of initials in the Illuminated Chronicle (c. 1360, Széchényi National Library, Cod. Lat. 404), which also depict the pagan rulers of Hungarian prehistory, giving a complete genealogical cycle. Models of this cycle – just like that of the contemporary Luxemburg genealogy once on the walls of Karlstein castle in Bohemia – were provided by French manuscripts, especially the Grandes Chroniques de France. Emphasis in the cycle is not on individual kings, but on the unity and continuity of the line of Hungarian kings. One figure stands out: the first (badly damaged) ruler of the cycle is depicted enthroned. It is here proposed that the cycle starts with an image of the current ruler, King Sigismund. The style and iconography of the cycle make it a prime example of the International Gothic style, and these characteristic can be explained by the close connections of Lelesz abbey to the royal court.

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In the years 1994-1996 a painted vault of a house in the Roman civilian town Brigetio was excavated in present-day Komárom/Szőny, Hungary. The wall-paintings, which date back to the late 2nd-early 3rd cents. A.D., represent the personifications of the Four Seasons as female busts in the corners, four panthers in the middle of the side-walls and a circular central motive with the figure of a nude woman and a horse. On the basis of relevant astrological sources the paintings on the vault can be interpreted as symbolic representations of the spheres of the sky (the aer and the aether) and of eternity. The central medallion, which creates a delusive impression of an oculus, shows the fixed constellations Andromeda and Pegasus in the highest spheres of the sky. Parallel ideas from the Roman pagan art and the Christian / early Byzantine art indicate that the concept was widespread from the 1st to the 6th cents. A.D., being echoed also by the descriptions and illustrations in some sources of the late antiquity, like, for instance, the Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes.

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Ioustinianos and has 50 preserved temples that belong to Byzantine and post-Byzantine period. Remarkable Byzantine monuments are preserved in Kastoria, with wall paintings with the flawless technique of fresco and rare samples of Byzantine icons and woodcut

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according to traditional recipes which were then exposed as dosimeters in various museums and galleries or used to assist in characterisation of binding media in samples removed during the restoration of wall paintings (sixteenth century) in the dome of S

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