Drawing on established connections between Roman identity and an agricultural landscape, this paper examines how the imagery of disrupted pastoral and agrarian landscapes and characters represent the effects of civil war on the Roman people in Vergil’s Aeneid and Lucan’s Bellum Civile. While disturbance and turmoil are already a part of the natural landscape in Vergil’s Eclogues and Georgics, in epic, a genre that concerns itself with how empire and imperial power mediate Roman identity, the displacement of shepherds and agriculture partially redefines Roman identity in militaristic terms. Vergil’s pastoral characters, written into military roles as civic landscapes displace agrarian ones in the Aeneid, survive but fail to find a place in Lucan’s ruined and desolate Pharsalian landscape in the Bellum Civile. There, the broken natural landscape, unfit for agriculture, pastoralism, or trade, mirrors the redefinition of what is “Roman” and the occlusion of Rome’s link to an idealized bucolic past.
such significance to justify publishing in such journals. Before the War in Croatia two mathematical journals were published: Glasnik Matematički and RAD JAZU, Razred za Prirodne Znanosti - Matematika.
Note that at that time as domestic
, but laid emphasis on the training of the members. The vernacular decorative traditions of certain representative regions (Matyóföld, Kalocsa etc.) have remained in practice between the two World Wars ( Flórián 2009 :593). Albeit life conditions of the
This article considers
the Parthian war of Publius Ventidius in 39/8 BC and its place in the ancient
literary tradition. It is argued that although Ventidius' Parthian campaign
retained its popular emotive force, it was at first considered unsatisfactory
as a model for Eastern triumph; the spoils and standards captured at Carrhae in
53 BC remained in Parthian hands, while the campaign itself was punitive and
limited in objectives. Furthermore, Ventidius' 'Parthian' war could equally be
viewed as the final suppression of elements loyal to Brutus and Cassius. It is
peculiar that allusions to Ventidius' triumph are entirely absent from
literature of the Augustan age. This article argues that it was not until after
the deaths of Gaius and Lucius Caesar, and the renewal of trouble on the
Northern frontier that the Parthian campaign came to be seen as recompense for
the disaster of Carrhae in 53 BC.