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Early crisis warning system using community engagement through social network sites in times of disaster

Study case of the Dead Sea flash floods

Korai krízisjelző rendszerek alkalmazása a közösség bevonásával katasztrófák idején a közösségi oldalakon keresztül

A 2018-as holt-tengeri villámárvizek példája
Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Abdelkarim Alhloul

Gladfelter, S. (2018) The politics of participation in community-based early warning systems: Building resilience or precarity through local roles in disseminating disaster information?, International Journal of

Open access

Nowadays natural disasters phenomena as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis or earthquakes, are still difficult to prevent. Based on signaling of the phenomenon imminent appearance in the destructive area, important limitations in human losses and material damages will be carried out. For that  reason, WARNING turned into a key objective, both in theoretical and practical research.  For the earthquakes, warning intervals are nevertheless very short - seconds to maximum one minute (Mexico City case). Even if the time window is reduced, automated decision measures are possible to establish in case of an well organized system, mainly for: protection of dangerous chemical units and oil installations; shutdown valves of the natural gas pipelines to prevent fire hazard; protection of nuclear power plants and other high-risk nuclear objectives; electrical insulating of the power distribution network systems; alerting of emergency services, alerting of civil protection, and particularly of  civil population; protection of railway transportation systems etc.  In Romania, the major seismic risk zone is located in Vrancea region. The earthquakes occurring in this area are the main sources of the seismic hazard on the Romania territory.  Seismotectonic characteristics of the Vrancea region offered the opportunity to create and develop a rapid seismic warning system. This system is simple, reasonably low-priced and robust and allows warning in an approximately 25 seconds time window for Bucharest. Warning signal obtained will be issued at the responsible factors and specific users in order to control automated blocking of the installations and to carry out the required protection actions.

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Abstract  

CREWS is a regional network of five high volume air samplers located around the Gulf of Mexico designed to detect extremely low level releases of airborne radioactivity from the nuclear power plants being constructed in Cuba. Four of the stations are currently operational. The CREWS stations use a high efficiency particulate filter to sample aerosols larger than about 10 nm. Aerosols are collected continuously for a week at a flow rate of 515 cubic meters per hour and then counted on a high purity germanium (HPGe) spectroscopy system. The first station began operation in October, 1998. This paper reports the concentration ranges and seasonal trends of the natural radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb detected by the CREWS system. Anthropogenic measurements are also provided and possible sources are discussed. Finally, the paper examines the average minimum detectable concentrations achieved by the systems and predicts the level of release that this system can detect from the Cuban reactors.

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The Romanian Seismic Network consisting of 8 short-period stations (S13), 60 Altus — K2 and Q330 seismic stations, is primarily designed to survey the Vrancea seismic region (strong and moderate Vrancea earthquakes). Since July 2002, a new seismic monitoring system, Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR) has been operating. BURAR consists of 12 seismic stations distributed on a 5 km × 5 km area. 9 stations are equipped with short-period (SP) vertical sensors (GS-21 res) and one station is equipped with broad-band (BB) three component sensor (KS 54000). Broad-band sensors GMG40T (1000V/cm/s) were installed at 5 of the short-period stations, at the beginning of 2008. Recently, NIEP has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 21 broad band stations and one seismic array. In the next year NIEP will install additional broad band stations in the central part of Romanian territory and other 40 strong motions stations in Bucharest.At the National Data Centre (NDC) runs BRTT’s Antelope™ 4.9 data acquisition and processing software on two HP workstations for real-time and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation.The Romanian Seismic Network is already linked with IRIS and ORFEUS organizations and other European countries via Internet and is contributing in near real time with waveform data from 5 broadband stations.The seismotectonic characteristics of the Vrancea region offer the opportunity to create and develop a rapid seismic warning system. This system allows warning in an approximately 25 seconds time window for Bucharest.

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river banks is a significant research task for the development of early warning systems (e.g.,  Fathani et al. 2016 ; Intrieri and Gigli 2016 ; Greco and Pagano 2017 ; Wen et al. 2017 ). The high, steep banks along the west side of the River

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.: Early-warning system on new psychoactive substances: Operating guidelines. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, 2007. EMCDDA–Europol: 2011 Annual report on the implementation of Council

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Establishment of an effective early warning system can make the company operators make relevant decisions as soon as possible when finding the crisis, improve the operating results and financial condition of enterprise, and can also make investors avoid or reduce investment losses. This paper applies the partial least-squares logistic regression model for the analysis on early warning of enterprise financial distress in consideration of quite sensitive characteristics of common logistic model for the multicollinearity. The data of real estate industry listed companies in China are used to compare and analyze the early warning of financial distress by using the logistic model and the partial least-squares logistic model, respectively. The study results show that compared with the common logistic regression model, the applicability of partial least-squares logistic model is stronger due to its eliminating multicollinearity problem among various early warning indicators.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Zoltán Völgyi
and
Makszim Szavin

940 945 Droste, C., Greenlee, M. W., Roskamm, H.: A defective angina pectoris pain warning system. Experimental findings of ischemic and electrical pain test

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Anita Réka Tóth
,
Zsuzsanna Hideg
, and
László Institóris

578 583 Újváry, I.: Overview of psychoactive plants. Personal communication presented at the 9th Annual Meeting of the REITOX Early Warning System Network, organised by the

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A genetikai adatok szerepe a járványok elleni küzdelemben

Genetic data in the fight against pandemics

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Ágnes Becsei
,
Orsolya Anna Pipek
,
Péter Pollner
, and
István Csabai

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-járvány alatt bizonyossá vált, hogy az adattudományok, az adatok gyors megosztása és a nemzetközi összefogás a hatékony járványkezelés kulcsfontosságú eszközei. A járvány előtt létrejött Újonnan Felbukkanó fertőző betegségek Obszervatóriuma (Versatile Emerging infectious disease Observatory, VEO) nevű nemzetközi konzorcium célja egy olyan monitorozó rendszer kiépítése, amely a potenciálisan veszélyes kórokozókat még az előtt azonosítja, mielőtt azok tömeges megbetegedéseket okoznának, lehetőséget adva ezzel a gyors reagálásra. A járványok megelőzésére és kezelésére létrejött nemzetközi együttműködésekben, így a VEO-ban is a kórokozók, vagy a fertőzésnek kitett személyek genetikai szekvencia adatai kiemelkedő fontosságúak. Az ilyen típusú adatok kezelésével kapcsolatban az Európai Unióban többek között a Nagojai Jegyzőkönyv és a GDPR fogalmaz meg elveket, szabályokat.

Summary. Data science is proved to be a key tool in the fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but it requires a huge amount of data shared between international research groups. The Versatile Emerging infectious disease Observatory (VEO) EU collaboration was established to generate and distribute high quality data for an evidence-based early warning system for emerging infectious diseases. Through an iterative process between data scientists, disease experts, social scientists and citizen scientists, a collaborative platform will be created for storing, secure sharing and analyses of traditional and new data sources. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genomic research. This versatile technology is broadly applicable to pathogens and human hosts. Rapid sharing of pathogen genetic resources, including physical samples of cultured pathogens and additionally genetic sequencing data of pathogens, is crucial in support of research and outbreak response. Access to genetic resources is regulated by the Nagoya protocol which is an internationally binding treaty to ensure equal sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. So far the Nagoya protocol has been applied only to biological samples, but digital data from genetic sequencing doesn’t necessarily fall under the treaty. Effects of diseases can differ based on genetic backgrounds, as certain gene variants may provide protection against or susceptibility to viral diseases. Human genomic data is an important resource for medical research. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) lists identifiable human genetic data as sensitive, which is a subset of personal data. Sharing and analysis of this kind of data are strictly regulated and they are also subject to ethical challenges. These concerns become less pronounced when analyzing environmental samples like sewage. Samples collected from wastewater treatment plants can be used as pooled samples, containing naturally anonymized genetic information of the human population, near the wastewater treatment plant.

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