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Scientometrics
Authors: Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, József Özvegy, Nikola Krstić, Miklós Rusvai, Csaba Jakab, Zoran Stanimirović, and Zsolt Becskei

Scheren, P. A. G. M., Zanting, H. A. and Lemmens, A. M. C. (2000): Estimation of water pollution sources in Lake Victoria, East Africa: application and elaboration of the rapid assessment. methodology. J. Environ. Manage. 58 , 235

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Abstract  

Over the ages, the deposits of dead vegetation buried by rock and mudflows, compacted and compressed out all of the moisture; it slowly carbonized and became coal. Humic acids are natural organic acids — brown coloured biological macromolecules, formed in coal by biochemical changes (decomposition, pyrolysis) of lignocellulosic matter. From lignite coal bed, the humates were extracted in alkaline medium and isolated from the residual fraction. Humic acids were obtained by treating humantes’ solutions with HCl. Thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA and DSC) was used in order to establish the decomposition and thermal effects of lignite, humates, humic acids and residual matter extracted from Rovinari mines in Romania. A non-isothermal linear temperature regime was imposed to reveal all decomposition steps.

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Water is necessary to life so when supplied as drinking water to consumers, a satisfactory quality must be maintained. In Egypt, infectious intestinal diseases are the major cause of hospitalization in almost all regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples from urban and rural communities. Thirty-five samples of treated (chlorinated) water from taps, 25 samples of bottled water and 15 samples of hand pump (untreated) water collected from different cities alongside the River Nile during the winter of 2007 were bacteriologically tested for safety as drinking water. This study indicated good quality of tap water and bottled water. The untreated water samples (hand pumps) were, however, slightly contaminated by faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella and Shigella . Consequently, the consumers in the villages receiving water through hand pumps are often exposed to the risk of water-borne diseases due to inadequate treatment of the raw water. Therefore, there are guidelines necessary to protect groundwater quality. Moreover, PCR-amplified by some functional gene fragments such as dctA, dcuB, frdA, dcuS and dcuR genes of the E. coli was adapted for use as a non-cultivation-based molecular approach for detection of E. coli populations from water samples without the need for pure and identified cultures.

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Accidents: Cases of Severe Transboundary Water Pollution. Environmental Policy and Law , Vol. 31, No. 2, 106–111. Lucas C. The Baia Mare and Baia Borsa Accidents: Cases of Severe

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Microalgae are unicellular organisms of rapid growth. They are found in marine environment, freshwater, and soil. They have the potential to reduce emerging environmental problems, e.g. greenhouse effect and water pollution ( H arun et al., 2010

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Abstract  

Measurement of the effectiveness of science policies is analyzed as a multi-level problem. Journal-journal citations are discussed as a potential candidate for a domain beyond the control of policy-makers and authors or research groups and therefore may function as a relatively stable and easily accessible baseline for the calibration of outputs and outcomes of science policy. A method is developed, usingSCPsJCRs which is then applied to the two cases of water pollution and humanisation of labor. This method can also be used as a simple indicator for the development of journal-journal citation patterns over time.

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Summary  

The Paraíba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil. In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: Gy. Rabnecz, I. Keresztényi, Gy. Isaák, I. Jócsák, Zs. Varga, and E. Peli

In this study two moss species ( Tortula ruralis and Fontinalis antipyretica ) were used to indicate the relative levels of air and water pollution by ten heavy metals: Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Al, Fe and Pb at the territory of an oil refinery near to river Danube in Hungary. A period of one-month-long was studied in the summer of 2007. The elemental content of samples was determined by ICP-MS. Air pollution load of many heavy metals may originate from windswept soil dust or air depositing aerosols. The water biomonitoring did not indicate the increasing elemental load by the oil refinery.

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Abstract  

The advantages and drawbacks of using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for soil, sediment, plant and water pollution studies are discussed. The experimental procedures used for each method and for each type of sample matrix are described. They were tested on several certified reference materials. The results obtained on these materials showed good agreement for many elements for which the two techniques are suited, and they were complementary for the other elements which are also of environmental interest. An element-by-element assessment is presented to indicate the precautions to be taken and the most convenient technique for each of them.

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