Authors:Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu
This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares
the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were
collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined.
Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed.
It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase
rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high
quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees,
both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In
addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic
patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil
and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment
seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability
in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability
and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.
Authors:Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, József Özvegy, Nikola Krstić, Miklós Rusvai, Csaba Jakab, Zoran Stanimirović, and Zsolt Becskei
Scheren, P. A. G. M., Zanting, H. A. and Lemmens, A. M. C. (2000): Estimation of waterpollution sources in Lake Victoria, East Africa: application and elaboration of the rapid assessment. methodology. J. Environ. Manage. 58 , 235
Authors:A. Rotaru, Irina Nicolaescu, P. Rotaru, and C. Neaga
Over the ages, the deposits of dead vegetation buried by rock and mudflows, compacted and compressed out all of the moisture;
it slowly carbonized and became coal.
Humic acids are natural organic acids — brown coloured biological macromolecules, formed in coal by biochemical changes (decomposition,
pyrolysis) of lignocellulosic matter.
From lignite coal bed, the humates were extracted in alkaline medium and isolated from the residual fraction. Humic acids
were obtained by treating humantes’ solutions with HCl.
Thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA and DSC) was used in order to establish the decomposition and thermal effects of lignite, humates,
humic acids and residual matter extracted from Rovinari mines in Romania. A non-isothermal linear temperature regime was imposed
to reveal all decomposition steps.
Authors:Aly Abo-Amer, El-Sayed Soltan, and Magdy Abu-Gharbia
Water is necessary to life so when supplied as drinking water to consumers, a satisfactory quality must be maintained. In Egypt, infectious intestinal diseases are the major cause of hospitalization in almost all regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples from urban and rural communities. Thirty-five samples of treated (chlorinated) water from taps, 25 samples of bottled water and 15 samples of hand pump (untreated) water collected from different cities alongside the River Nile during the winter of 2007 were bacteriologically tested for safety as drinking water. This study indicated good quality of tap water and bottled water. The untreated water samples (hand pumps) were, however, slightly contaminated by faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci,
Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella
. Consequently, the consumers in the villages receiving water through hand pumps are often exposed to the risk of water-borne diseases due to inadequate treatment of the raw water. Therefore, there are guidelines necessary to protect groundwater quality. Moreover, PCR-amplified by some functional gene fragments such as
dctA, dcuB, frdA, dcuS
was adapted for use as a non-cultivation-based molecular approach for detection of
populations from water samples without the need for pure and identified cultures.
Authors:V.M. Nascimento, K.M. Nascimento, and G.G. Fonseca
Microalgae are unicellular organisms of rapid growth. They are found in marine environment, freshwater, and soil. They have the potential to reduce emerging environmental problems, e.g. greenhouse effect and waterpollution ( H arun et al., 2010
Measurement of the effectiveness of science policies is analyzed as a multi-level problem. Journal-journal citations are discussed as a potential candidate for a domain beyond the control of policy-makers and authors or research groups and therefore may function as a relatively stable and easily accessible baseline for the calibration of outputs and outcomes of science policy. A method is developed, usingSCPsJCRs which is then applied to the two cases of water pollution and humanisation of labor. This method can also be used as a simple indicator for the development of journal-journal citation patterns over time.
Authors:M. O. Pereira, C. Calza, M. J. Anjos, R. T. Lopes, and F. G. Araújo
The Paraíba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil.
In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the
inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work
used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual
fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb.
Authors:Gy. Rabnecz, I. Keresztényi, Gy. Isaák, I. Jócsák, Zs. Varga, and E. Peli
In this study two moss species (
) were used to indicate the relative levels of air and water pollution by ten heavy metals: Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Al, Fe and Pb at the territory of an oil refinery near to river Danube in Hungary. A period of one-month-long was studied in the summer of 2007. The elemental content of samples was determined by ICP-MS. Air pollution load of many heavy metals may originate from windswept soil dust or air depositing aerosols. The water biomonitoring did not indicate the increasing elemental load by the oil refinery.
The advantages and drawbacks of using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for soil, sediment, plant and water pollution studies are discussed. The experimental procedures used for each method and for each type of sample matrix are described. They were tested on several certified reference materials. The results obtained on these materials showed good agreement for many elements for which the two techniques are suited, and they were complementary for the other elements which are also of environmental interest. An element-by-element assessment is presented to indicate the precautions to be taken and the most convenient technique for each of them.