Modern thermal analysis, microcalorimetry and new emerging combined techniques which deliver calorimetric, microscopic and
spectroscopic data offer a powerful analytical battery for the study of pharmaceuticals. These techniques are very useful
in all steps of development of new drug products as well as methods for quality control in production. The characterization
of raw materials enables to understand the relationships between polymorphs, solvates and hydrates and to choose the proper
development of new drug products with very small amount of material in a very short time. Information on stability, purity
is valuable for new entities as well as for marketed drug substances from different suppliers. Excipients which vary from
single organic or inorganic entity to complexes matrixes or polymers need to be characterized and properly controlled. The
thermodynamic phase-diagrams are the basis of the studies of drug-excipients interactions. They are very useful for the development
of new delivery systems. A great number of new formulations need proper knowledge of the behaviour of the glass transition
temperature of the components. Semi-liquid systems, interactions in aqueous media are also successfully studied by these techniques.
Authors:E. T. Stepkowska, S. Yariv, J. L. Pérez-Rodríguez, A. Justo, A. Ruiz-Conde, and P. Sánchez-Soto
A dredged sludge was studied to investigate the influence of ageing and of pretreatment on its drying rate, water sorption/retention, thermal mass loss, XRD and microstructure (SEM).
Ageing caused change in particle thickness and specific surface, a gradual aggregation to form units of the size 10–50 μm, formation of macropores of similar size, unhomogeneity and fissures between aggregates and “super-aggregates”. Macropores were detectable by the initial drying rate especially at 45°C. They indicated a tendency of collapsing at a lower drying rate at 30°C. This is consistent with SEM observations. With ageing the aggregates were more compact and less sensitive to drying.
The aggregated system indicated a higher initial drying rate (higher permeability), whereas stirring induced a lower drying rate, favouring the formation of compact laminar structure.
XRD peak intensity was lowered with ageing due to decrease in crystallinity (stacking faults and/or decrease in crystallite size). The content of amorphous material was lowered as well, reducing water sorption/desorption, which indicated that the specific surface is lower.
From the suitable microstructure induced by ageing some new phases may form (feldspar, zeolites), preferably in the coarser fraction of the sludge. This is disturbed by stirring which operation expels also carbonates from the particle edges and this may reduce the structural strength of the sludge. In aged bentonite suspension a similar tendency was observed of formation of specific microstructures capable of phase transformation, e.g. to feldspar.
Authors:M. Bakass, H. Bahaj, R. Benaddi, and C. Bayane
, A . A new methodology of studying the dynamics of watersorption/desorption under real operating conditions of adsorption heat pumps: experiment . Int J Heat Mass Transf . 2008 ; 51 : 4966 – 4972 . 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007