The essay analyses the process of privatization in the transitional period. In the early 1990's, the privatization of the competitive sphere in Hungary meant the purchase of state-owned companies. Besides the legal background, the essay gives an overview on the political aspects of privatization. The next step was the privatization of public services in the middle of the 90's. The privatization of the sector of public services is peculiar as privatised public services remain under governmental control even after their privatization: public administration is responsible for the continuity of the service, for its general accessibility and its quality. The essay deals with the issues of the application of law in this respect. The privatization of the welfare sphere was primarily characterised by the retreat of the state without applying alternative methods like initiating the participation of non-profit organizations. In the analyses of the privatization of the welfare sphere, the essay deals with the principles of privatization, as well as the constitutional problems involved and the conflicts of the central government and the self-governments.
Europe is not only the land of origin, but also the principal keeper of social rights, since it is associated with the concept of Europeanism. The obvious social restrictions in Hungary as well as in other countries of Europe in recent years make it absolutely reasonable to examine to what social-economic context the discernible withdrawal of welfare services provided by the state is attributable. The similar manifestations are supported by no means by the same system of social conditions. As to its basis and dating back to its historical origin, the current social policy of the EU is framed in the spirit of the conceptual system of the social state. The Fundamental Rights Charter (just as the “European Constitution Treaty”, as part of which it may become mandatory) does not reflect either the labour society or Europe of the peoples, but the conceptions of the capital, of political classes and eurocracy. Nevertheless: considering the power relations of global capitalism, we need to appreciate as an apparent actuality that in the midst of these relations the charter insists not only on the requirement of European unity, but also on a modernised version of the social conceptual system. The purpose of this treatise has been to highlight that social objectives cannot be treated as isolated from their economic and social context. We should not risk balance by the maintenance and preservation of a social-organisational framework via overspending, which altogether contradicts the possibility of development and the sustainability of equilibrated development.
WelfareServices, 47th Report to the Parliament, Government Printer for the State of Victoria.
Walker, K. J. (ed.) (1992): Australian Environmental Policy: Ten Case Studies. Sydney: University of New South Wales
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