Theophanes Confessor, Byzantine author of the early 9th century, when referring to the Khazars in his work entitled Chronographia, used the term “Eastern Turks”. It is widely accepted that Byzantine authors used such terms in pairs, so the pendant of “Eastern Turks” was “Western Turks”, the latter being used to denote the early Hungarians. This conclusion is based on the fact that Byzantine chroniclers called the Hungarians Turks at the end of the 9th century. Theophanes mentioned the Khazars as Eastern Turks, as if he had information on a people also called Turks living west of the Khazars. However, not all historians shared this view, and some of them supposed that Theophanes applied the term Eastern Turks in a geographical sense, since the Khazars had lived east of the Byzantine Empire. The solution to this problem has far-reaching consequences. If Theophanes referred to the Hungarians, that would mark their first appearance in written sources at the beginning of the 9th century. But the pendant of the “Eastern Turks” in the chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, is not the “Western Turks”, but the “Western Huns”.
Ez a rövid írás a nyugati türkök első uralkodójának címével foglalkozik. Az orchoni feliratokon a birodalomalapító Bumïn kagán társaként és szintén kagánként emlegetett Istemi (Istämi) már a birodalom megalapításakor önálló központot hozott létre nyugaton. A türk uralkodó egyik címe a bizánci forrásokban Sizaboulos, illetve Silziboulos volt, amely valószínűleg egy eredeti *Sirĵibuγ/*Silĵibuγ alakra megy vissza. Ghirsman közölt egy olyan érmet, amelynek köriratán a sri iapgu šaho ('yabγu király úr') olvasható. A Silziboulos név mögött valószínűleg ez a śriyabγu összetétel rejtőzhet.
The present study first investigates the Turkic and Chinese terminology for nomadic tribes and tribal confederacies, then proceeds to analyse the famous passage to be found on the Chinese epitaph of Princess Xienli Pijia (Bilgä), in which we are informed that the father of the Princess, Gudulu (= Qutlu?) Mechuo was the Türk Khagan of theThirty Tribes. Contrary to an older attempt of K. Czeglédy at interpreting the numerical composition of the Türk confederacy, the author elucidates the question in another way. To his opinion the term Nine Surnames (jiu xing) stands for the toquz o?uz, to which the eleven tribes of the Eastern Turks must be added. These two groups make up twenty tribes, and adding to this amount the ten tribes of the Western Turks (on oq) we get the Thirty Tribes of the complete Türk confederacy.
)» . Тащкент, pp. 51–55.
Lin, Yin (2003): WesternTurks and Byzantine Gold Coins Found in China. Transoxiana . Journal de Estudios Orientales 6 (Junio 2003), online at
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Harmatta, J. (1996): Tokharistan and Gandhara under WesternTürk Rule (650–750). History of the Regions. In: History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume III. The Crossroads of Civilizations