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. Genomic selection for processing and end-use quality traits in the CIMMYT spring bread wheat breeding program . Plant Genome 9 : 1 – 12 . Bell , B.M. , Chamberlain , N. , Collins , T

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: C. Kuti, L. Láng, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, G. Vida, and Z. Bedő

The research institute in Martonvásár is one of the largest agricultural research institutes in Hungary and in Central Europe. For many years now, the accumulated data on the extensive wheat breeding stocks has been handled and analysed using programs developed in the institute. The information system that has been elaborated and constantly improved can be used for keeping records of breeding stock, for planning field and laboratory experiments, for site-plant performance evaluation, for automated data collection, for the rapid evaluation of the results and for effective management of the pedigree, seed exchange and the institute’s cereal gene bank.The demand for the storage of molecular data and their use in breeding has increased parallel with the development of new, PCR-based markers. For this reason, informatics tools (data structure and software) suited to the design of marker-assisted selection experiments and the interpretation of the results have been developed as part of the existing Martonvásár wheat breeding information system. The aim was to link molecular data to the phenotypic information already available in the database and to make the results available to wheat breeders and geneticists.The interpretation of molecular data related to specific genotypes is of assistance in clarifying the genetic background of economically important phenotypic traits, in identifying markers linked to the useful genes or agronomic traits to be found in the genomics database, and in the selection of satisfactory parental partners for breeding. Marker assisted selection coupled with traditional breeding activities enables the breeder to make plant selections based on the presence of target genes. Conventional wheat breeding with the integrated molecular component allows breeders to more accurately and efficiently select defined sets of genes in segregating generations.The molecular data are stored in a relational database, the central element of which is the [DNASource] entity. This is used to collect and store information on gene sources arising during breeding. It is therefore linked both to the phenotypic data stored in the traditional breeding system (measurements, observations, laboratory data) and to the component parts of the new, molecular data structure ([PrimerBank], [Marker], [Allele] and [Gene]).

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: B. Husenov, S. Asaad, H. Muminjanov, L. Garkava-Gustavsson, A. Yorgancillar, and E. Johansson

://www.minitab.com/en-us/products/minitab/ Morgounov , A. 1992 . Wheat and Wheat Breeding in the Former USSR . CIMMYT. Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Muminjanov , H. , Berlin , A. , Persson , R. , Otambekova

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The presence and frequency of the resistance gene complex Lr34/Yr18 was investigated in the wheat breeding programme of the Agricultural Research Institute, Martonvásár, Hungary. A total of 226 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from Hungary and other countries were tested with an STS marker, csLV34 , to understand the distribution of the Lr34/Yr18 resistance gene complex. A 150-bp PCR fragment was amplified in 64 wheat cultivars and lines with the resistance genes Lr34/Yr18 , while a 229-bp fragment was detected in 162 genotypes without Lr34/Yr18 . The genotypes with Lr34/Yr18 accounted for 28.3% of the wheat cultivars and advanced lines tested. Among the 128 varieties and breeding lines of Martonvásár origin tested, 34 carried the Lr34/Yr18 genes, with a frequency of 26.6%. The frequency of these genes was 30.6% in genotypes of other origin. The STS marker csLV34 could be used as an effective tool for the marker-assisted selection of Lr34/Yr18 genes in breeding wheat cultivars with durable rust resistance.

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Borlaug, N. E. (1968): Wheat breeding and its impact on world food supply. pp. 5–15. In: Finlay, E. W., Sheperd, K. W. (eds.), Proceedings of the 3 rd International Wheat Genetics Symposium . Australian Academy of Science, Canberra

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101 108 Khalil, I. H., Carver, B. F., Smith, E. L. (1995): Genetic gains in two selection phases of a wheat-breeding program. Plant Breed. , 114 , 117

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Kwiatek, H. Wiśniewska, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Korbas, M. Gawłowska, M. Majka, K. Pankiewicz, J. Danielewicz, and J. Belter

Pch1 gene translocated from Aegilops ventricosa provides effective resistance to eyespot in wheat. To track the Pch1 gene introgression, we investigated 372 genotypes obtained from various breeding programs using endopeptidase EpD1b marker, sequence-tagged-site (STS) marker XustSSR2001-7DL, and the score of infection index (K-index) evaluated after in vivo inoculation test. These genotypes were divided into three groups with 136, 124 and 112 genotypes for the field test lasting three years. In 2011, the mean K-index was 0.81, while 2012 and 2013 the mean K-indexes were 1.60 and 1.46, respectively. Both marker results indicated that 18 genotypes possessed Pch1 gene. Statistical analysis of the level of K-index showed that these 18 genotypes were resistant to eyespot, which verified the proper assignment of wheat genotypes with Pch1 gene based on the marker data. Thus, the endopeptidase and XustSSR2001-7DL are useful for identifying sources of eyespot resistance gene Pch1 in wheat breeding program.

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Hexaploid synthetic wheat, derived from crosses between durum wheat and Aegilops tauschii, is widely accepted as an important source of useful traits for wheat breeding. During 2015 and 2016, three groups of synthetics were studied in Azerbaijan (3 sites) and Russia (1 site). Group 1 comprised CIMMYT primary synthetics derived from eastern European winter durum wheats crossed to Ae. tauschii accessions from the Caspian Sea basin. Group 2 included lines derived from CIMMYT synthetics × bread wheat crosses. Group 3 consisted of synthetics developed in Japan by crossing durum variety Langdon with a diverse collection of Ae. tauschii accessions. Varieties Bezostaya-1 and Seri were used as checks. Group 1 synthetics were better adapted and more productive than those in group 3, indicating that the durum parent plays an important role in the adaptation of synthetics. Compared to Bezostaya-1 synthetics produced fewer spikes per unit area, an important consideration for selecting bread wheat parents for maintenance of productivity. Synthetics had longer spikes but were not generally free-threshing. All synthetics and derivatives had 1000-kernel weights comparable to Bezostya-1 and significantly higher than Seri. All primary synthetics were resistant to leaf rust, several to stem rust, and few to stripe rust. Superior genotypes from all three groups that combine high expression of spike productivity traits and stress tolerance index were identified.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Gina Brown-Guedira, Carl Griffey, Fred Kolb, Anne McKendry, J. Murphy, and David Sanford

Bonnett, D.G., Rebetzke, G.J., Spielmeyer, W. 2005. Strategies for efficient implementation of molecular markers in wheat breeding. Mol. Breeding 15 :75

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