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The vast genetic resources of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, hereafter WB) may hold unique assets for improving barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivars for drought stress. To evaluate genetic potential and characterization of variation among a diverse collection of barley and WB genotypes, mostly originated from Iran, a field experiment was performed under three moisture environments (control, mild and intense drought stress) during two years (2012–2014). Considerable variation was observed among the wild and cultivated genotypes for drought tolerance and agronomic traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped genotypes studied into three groups (WB, two-row barley and sixrow barley groups). However, Iranian and foreign WB genotypes were not completely separated, showing a high variation within both gene pools. The high significance of genotype by environment interaction, confirms importance of using accurate target environments for drought stress breeding. A number of WB genotypes with the highest values of the number of tillers, number of seed per spike, seed weight, grain yield and yield stability index under stressed environments were identified as superior genotypes. Most of these genotypes originate from Iran, highlighting the importance of this germplasm in barley breeding.

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135 140 Dreiseitl, A., Bockelman, H.E. 2003. Sources of powdery mildew resistance in a wild barley collection. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 50 :345

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wild cereals in Israel and vicinity, II. Phenotypic variation within and between populations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum. Euphytica , 33 , 737-756. Genetic resources of wild cereals in Israel and vicinity, II

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. Kobylyanskii , V.D. 1967 . Biological characters of wild barley species in relation to aims of breeding . Biolog. Zh. Armenia 20 : 41 – 51 . Komatsuda , T

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Dreiseitl, A., Bockelman, H.E. 2003. Sources of powdery mildew resistance in a wild barley collection. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 50 :345–350. Bockelman H.E. Sources of powdery mildew

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Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root.

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As one of the world’s earliest domesticated crops, barley is a model species for the study of evolution and domestication. Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby a population adapts, through selection; to new environments created by human cultivation. We describe the genome-scanning of molecular diversity to assess the evolution of barley in the Tibetan Plateau. We used 667 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to genotype 185 barley landraces and wild barley accessions from the Tibetan Plateau. Genetic diversity in wild barley was greater than in landraces at both genome and chromosome levels, except for chromosome 3H. Landraces and wild barley accessions were clearly differentiated genetically, but a limited degree of introgression was still evident. Significant differences in diversity between barley subspecies at the chromosome level were observed for genes known to be related to physiological and phenotypical traits, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, malting quality and agronomic traits. Selection on the genome of six-rowed naked barley has shown clear multiple targets related to both its specific end-use and the extreme environment in Tibet. Our data provide a platform to identify the genes and genetic mechanisms that underlie phenotypic changes, and provide lists of candidate domestication genes for modified breeding strategies.

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Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) is a good gene source to improve salt tolerance in barley because it rapidly hybridizes and recombines with barley cultivars. Proteomics can assist in identifying proteins associated with a certain environmental or developmental signal. We employed a proteomic approach to understand the mechanisms of plant responses to salinity in a salt tolerant accession of H. spontaneum. At the 4-leaf stage, wild barley plants were exposed to 0 (control treatment) or 300 mM NaCl (salt treatment). The salt treatment lasted 3 weeks. Total proteins of leaf 4 were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. More than 500 protein spots were reproducibly detected. Of these, 29 spots showed significant differences between salt treatment and control. Using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, we identified 29 cellular proteins, which represented 16 different proteins. These were classified into six categories and a group with unknown biological function. The proteins identified were involved in many different cellular functions. Three spots were identified as unknown proteins; searching in the NCBI database revealed that there was a 71% match with clathrin assembly protein putative [Ricinus communis], a 67% match with actin binding protein [Zea mays], and a 66% match with phosphatidylinositol kinase [Arabidopsis thaliana]. Other proteins identified included ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), oxygen-evolving enhancer protein (OEE), photosystem II reaction centerWprotein (Psbw), ribosomal proteins, chloroplast RNA binding protein (ChRBP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), thioredoxin h (Trx), nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), profilin, translationally-controlled tumor protein (TCTP), polyamine oxidase (PAO) and universal stress protein family (USP).

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Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a South American wild barley that occurs exclusively in Chile and Argentina, where it is a component of natural pastures. This species has been crossed with durum and bread wheats to obtain a new amphiploid, called tritordeum, which presents agronomic traits of a new crop. Two groups represented by H1 and H7 lines have shown differences for spike length and density, number of spikelets per spike and various other characters which are interesting for tritordeum improvement. This study was conducted to investigate inheritance of these three characters in a cross between H1 and H7 lines, including parents, F 1 and F 2 generations. The three characters studied fitted the additive model. The dominance effects were less strong than the additive effects, indicating partial dominance of positive sign for number of spikelets per spike; whereas spike length displayed small dominance effects of negative sign and the spike density showed intermediate inheritance, with the inheritance being almost exclusively additive.

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Baek, H.J., Beharav, A., Nevo, E. 2003. Ecological-genomic diversity of microsatellites in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum populations in Jordan. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106 :397

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