winemaking technologies has been examined. Some biological stabilization effects can be achieved by pasteurization, which prolongs the shelf life of wine but has a considerable influence on the quality, colour, alcohol content and other traits of the product
demand. In order to reduce losses and improve the added value of table grapes, they are processed into juice, dried fruit, fruit wines, and other by-products ( Huang et al., 2022 ). Among these, wine can greatly increase the economic value of table grapes
-inflammation, and anti-aging properties [ 1 ]. Red wine is well-known for its health benefits, and most of them are, at least partially, attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds [ 2 ]. During winemaking procedure, phenolics are transferred from grapes to
The article attempts to give an overview of how the different types of borders in Hungarian vine and wine culture can be manifested. In addition to the borders separating the different wine regions, there can also be borders within the individual vine-growing areas. The central purpose of the delimitation of a wine area is to establish a distinctive identity for the wines produced within it, and provide a means whereby the provenance of those wines can be guaranteed. The question and problem of drawing, strengthening and representing the borders can certainly throw light on new aspects of the grape and wine culture that can be regarded as related to the interests of vine-growing communities and to conflicts between them.
1 Introduction Biogenic amines are organic bases naturally present in protein-rich food (fish, milk, and meat) and, generally at higher concentrations, in fermented foods (cheese, salami, beer, and wine) ( Silla Santos, 1996 ). Biogenic amines can
During our research
concentrations of quality wines were investigated by membrane separation on
nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. The practicability of the process
was examined by experimental design in our laboratory experiments. The effects
of the operating parameters on the efficiency of the methods were analyzed,
from which the conclusion was drawn that the sugar content of the wines affects
the filtrate capacity considerably. This phenomenon was attributed to the
resistance appearing during the process. This resistance is the osmotic
pressure which is faced with the driving force. By the mathematical modeling of
the process - building up experimental and empirical relations - the answer for
the practical implementing was searched for. Our concrete model concentrates on
the connection between the changing of the osmotic pressure and the retained
molecules by the membrane. Monitoring of this connection is a primary criterion
when planning the optimal development of the process.
The article analyses the specific function that wine drinking has in Bulgarian epic songs as a step in the procedure of rediscovering a kinship relationship with a lost brother or sister. On the basis of various epic situations of competition in wine drinking and wine betting, the text outlines the meaning of wine as a signifier of (re)establishing a kinship relationship, which is among the representative ones for the system of kinship relationships in Bulgarian folklore epics.
Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. This mycotoxin is a common contaminant of various food products including cereal products, spices, dried fruits, coffee, beer and wine. Besides cereal products, beer and wine contribute significantly to ochratoxin exposure of humans. We examined the ochratoxin content of Hungarian wines and beers using an immunochemical technique. The detection limit of this technique is 0.01mg l-1. Altogether 65 wine and 25 beer samples were analysed. The presence of ochratoxin A was confirmed by HPLC in positive samples. Ochratoxin A was detected in 97.7% of wines, with ochratoxin concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.533mg l-1. The mean ochratoxin A concentration in wines was 0.110mg l-1. Only one of the Hungarian wines examined contained more than 0.5mg l-1ochratoxin A, the previously suggested EU limit for wine. Our data indicate that red wines are more frequently contaminated, and have higher mean ochratoxin contamination (0.117mg ml-1) than white wines (0.0967mg ml-1), in accordance with previous observations. A North-South gradient in wine ochratoxin concentrations is not evident from our data. For beers, all but one of the samples was found to be contaminated with small amounts of ochratoxin A with a mean concentration of 0.127mg l-1(range: 0.030-0.250mg l-1). Only one of the beers contained ochratoxin A above 0.2mg l-1, the anticipated European Community maximum allowable limit in beer. We could not detect correlation between the type and origin of beer and ochratoxin contamination.
The effects of red grape, wild grape and black raspberry wines on the quality of ground pork during a 15 days refrigerated storage period were investigated. The levels of phenolic compounds were the highest in black raspberry wine (P<0.05). In contrast, the antioxidant capacities according to ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were not significantly different among the wines (P>0.05). The addition of 5% and 10% wine influenced the quality of ground pork by decreasing pH, inhibiting the progression of lipid oxidation and the formation of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and stabilizing the red colour of the ground pork compared to control samples to which no wine was added. In ground pork, addition of red grape wine led to lower concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.19–0.39 mg kg−1) and TVB-N values (69.1–119.9 mg kg−1) than wild grape (0.16–0.43 mg kg−1 and 72.0–194.1 mg kg−1, respectively) or black raspberry wine (0.33–0.58 mg kg−1 and 81.7–225.4 mg kg−1, respectively) up to 10 days of storage. Results from the present study suggested that the quality of ground pork was affected by wine type and storage period. These effects could be due to phenolic compounds as well as other chemical components of the wines.